Research Blogshttp://www.researchblogs.org/MainFeed.aspx?GroupID=32a collection of graduate blogs.Text Version 0.95.2004.102wacki/wacki/archive/2005/01/25/2840.aspxTue, 25 Jan 2005 22:27:00 GMT/wacki/archive/2005/01/25/2840.aspx/wacki/comments/2840.aspx/wacki/comments/commentRss/2840.aspx/wacki/archive/2005/01/25/2840.aspx#comment0/wacki/services/trackbacks/2840.aspxwackiwacki<img src ="/wacki/aggbug/2840.aspx" width = "1" height = "1" />wackiThe influence of cultural and aesthetic factors on trust in relation to local Internet Shopping site - report/alex2796/archive/2004/09/30/479.aspxThu, 30 Sep 2004 14:45:00 GMT/alex2796/archive/2004/09/30/479.aspx/alex2796/comments/479.aspx/alex2796/comments/commentRss/479.aspx/alex2796/archive/2004/09/30/479.aspx#comment3/alex2796/services/trackbacks/479.aspxThe influence of cultural and aesthetic factors on trust in relation to local multilingual Internet <H1 align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><FONT face=Garamond size=3> <DIV class=Section1> <H1 style="TEXT-JUSTIFY: inter-ideograph; MARGIN: 14pt 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: justify"><FONT size=3><SPAN lang=EN-GB> <DIV class=Section1> <DIV style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; PADDING-RIGHT: 0cm; BORDER-TOP: medium none; PADDING-LEFT: 0cm; PADDING-BOTTOM: 1pt; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-bottom-alt: solid windowtext .75pt">&nbsp;</DIV> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 312.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB><?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <DIV style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; PADDING-RIGHT: 0cm; BORDER-TOP: medium none; PADDING-LEFT: 0cm; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-bottom-alt: solid windowtext .75pt"> <P class=MsoBodyText style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; PADDING-RIGHT: 0cm; BORDER-TOP: medium none; PADDING-LEFT: 0cm; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: medium none; mso-padding-alt: 0cm 0cm 0cm 0cm; mso-border-bottom-alt: solid windowtext .75pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt; COLOR: #333399; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">1. Introduction<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></DIV> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">1.1 Choice of topic<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">The advance of technology has enabled businesses to communicate and trade around the world and mass produced products also enabled multinational companies to compete in terms of price and quality with local products. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">Marketing professionals have always been aware of how communication should work in local sectors</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> using traditional mediums (</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">one-way channel),</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> as evidence by the amount of marketing communication books which are available</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">Culture has also been considered as important by marketing professionals; this is a well understood factor and has often been used effectively. However this has been limited to traditional medium such as posters and TV adverts. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">There is no doubt that the birth of the Internet has created many opportunities but it also </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">poses</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> a great many difficulties.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN>One such difficulty is how marketing communications on Internet should work as the internet has unique characteristics where it is private, personal and interactive yet at the same time is global and passive. For example, having different contents on a local website in certain languages than </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">the other version of the </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">site might actually have negative effects on </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">users from different </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">language groups</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">,</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">partly because </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">all sites are equally assessable </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">and they would be able to see the difference and feel as if they are being treated differently.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">This is where traditional marketing theories do not facilitate. </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">Gaining t</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">rust is the other great difficulty in carrying out business on the Internet as &#8216;real&#8217; face to face interaction is </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">not possible at present</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">. Much research was done on how to gain trust on the business side such as <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Lanford&#8217;s</SPAN></I><SPAN style="COLOR: blue"> </SPAN>(2004) study (where it will be presented later in this report), </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">but </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">many</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> fail to include how </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">presentation of the site </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">might affect trust</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">,</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> i.e.</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">how to include </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">culture and aesthetics factor as part of the equation on gaining trust.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">This dissertation is design to further explore these issues by combining theories from different fields </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">with the aim of</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> generating guidelines on how to create a trustworthy site. This dissertation will start by examining the background theories of globalization and local cultures</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> as a whole</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> from a sociological</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">perspective, especially on the topic of globalization and its affects on local culture, where in fact it can be a threat as well as providing opportunities to local cultures. </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">It will then focus on how culture affects individual</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> psycholo</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">gical</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> changes. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 54pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">The second part of this discussion will focus on trust, firstly by </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">detailing</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"><SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;</SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">how trust is used as a tool for decision making and how culture and aesthetic might affect this decision making process.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN>A small scale experiment will be carried out as a preliminary research to explore these trust and aesthetic theories. The experiment is conducted on eBay where two types of presentation structure will be used, same product, one with better &#8220;design&#8221; and the other with just a plain, simple item description, both will appear as new sellers on the auction site.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 279.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 279.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">The final part of this research was a comparative study on two successful local Internet shopping websites in Hong Kong, using a checklist as the measurement too where it was compiled as a result of the literature review. It aims to discover whether culture and aesthetics are used for building trust in their trust promoting campaign. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 279.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 279.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">1.2 Definition of Internet shopping<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoCommentText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 6pt; TEXT-INDENT: 0cm; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 9.35pt 279.0pt right 432.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">It may be questioned</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"> why the term &#8216;e-commerce&#8217; does not have greater prominence in this dissertation.</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">This is because e-commerce is </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">a very wide </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">concept relating to using the Internet to carry out business better and faster - according to a definition by <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">businesstown</SPAN></I>(2003). And</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> although it has often been regarded as retail business</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">,<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"> </I>in fact, <SPAN style="COLOR: black">E-commerce can be divided into the following.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></SPAN></P> <TABLE class=MsoTableGrid style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; BORDER-TOP: medium none; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; BORDER-BOTTOM: medium none; BORDER-COLLAPSE: collapse; mso-padding-alt: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-insideh: .5pt solid windowtext; mso-border-insidev: .5pt solid windowtext; mso-yfti-tbllook: 480" cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 border=1> <TBODY> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 0"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #336677; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 426.1pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=568> <P class=MsoCommentText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 6pt; TEXT-INDENT: 0cm; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 9.35pt 279.0pt right 432.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: white; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Fig. 1 Different divisions of E-commerce <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 1; mso-yfti-lastrow: yes"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 426.1pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=568> <P class=MsoNormal style="BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 0pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .0001pt; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l5 level1 lfo25"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial">E-tailing or "virtual storefronts" on Web sites with online catalogs, sometimes gathered into a "virtual mall" <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 0pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .0001pt; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l5 level1 lfo25"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial">The gathering and use of demographic data through Web contacts <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 0pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .0001pt; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l5 level1 lfo25"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial">Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), the business-to-business exchange of data <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 0pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .0001pt; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l5 level1 lfo25"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial">E-mail and fax and their use as media for reaching prospects and established customers (for example, with newsletters) <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 0pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .0001pt; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l5 level1 lfo25"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial">Business-to-business buying and selling <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 0pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .0001pt; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l5 level1 lfo25"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial">The security of business transactions</SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: blue; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial"><SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoCommentText style="BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 6pt 9.35pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 9.35pt 279.0pt right 432.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoCommentText style="BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 6pt 9.35pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 9.35pt 279.0pt right 432.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Source:<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue"> Ketel and Nelson</SPAN></I><SPAN style="COLOR: black"> (2003)</SPAN><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 5pt 0cm; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 243.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: black; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 5pt 0cm; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 243.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: black; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">It might seem as if</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: black; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> the term &#8220;e-Tailing&#8221; would </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: black; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">probably </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: black; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">be a more professional term to use in this dissertation.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN>However, &#8220;Internet Shopping&#8221; was chosen instead as it is sensible to believe this term would provide reader</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: black; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">s with a better</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: black; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> understanding of</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: black; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> the idea because they would already</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: black; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> have some experience in purchasing from the Internet.</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: black; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">The term Internet shopping already gives the impression of goods being sold from business to consumer (B2C), such as the retail business <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Amazon.com</SPAN></I>, but B2C does include services such as online banking (e.g.<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">hsbc.co.uk</SPAN></I>), travel services (e.g. <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">thomascook.com</SPAN></I>), and online auctions (e.g. <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">eBay.com</SPAN></I>). Focusing on B2C, </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">one of its main features is that it can be a</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> global business. </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">However, companies are</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> finding it </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">difficult</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> to gain global business because of all the barriers that needed to be overcome, and one of these barriers is cultural differences and local competition. To overcome this one of the strategies employed by these companies is to localise their shopping site. Some have managed to achieve this successfully but many have not</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> as is evident from the burst of dotcoms. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">Nevertheless, local internet shopping (B2C) sites</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> can be categorised as follows:<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt right 432.0pt; mso-list: l21 level1 lfo7"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: Garamond; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: Garamond"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">A.<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">Local company trying to sell locally ( e.g. A </SPAN><?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:country-region><st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">UK</SPAN></st1:place></st1:country-region><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> company trying to sell in the </SPAN><st1:country-region><st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">UK</SPAN></st1:place></st1:country-region><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">)<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt right 432.0pt; mso-list: l21 level1 lfo7"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: Garamond; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: Garamond"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">B.<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">An international company trying to enter into a different market zone. (e.g.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN>A </SPAN><st1:country-region><st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">UK</SPAN></st1:place></st1:country-region><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> company marketing in </SPAN><st1:country-region><st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">China</SPAN></st1:place></st1:country-region><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">)<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Garamond; LETTER-SPACING: -0.1pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: EN-GB; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><BR style="PAGE-BREAK-BEFORE: always" clear=all></SPAN> <DIV style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; PADDING-RIGHT: 0cm; BORDER-TOP: medium none; PADDING-LEFT: 0cm; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-bottom-alt: solid windowtext .75pt"> <P class=MsoBodyText style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; PADDING-RIGHT: 0cm; BORDER-TOP: medium none; PADDING-LEFT: 0cm; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: medium none; mso-padding-alt: 0cm 0cm 0cm 0cm; mso-border-bottom-alt: solid windowtext .75pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt; COLOR: #333399; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">2. Culture<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></DIV> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">There is no doubt that culture is important, the following section aims to investigate and understand the theories of culture by identifying the difference between global and local culture and how it was affected by globalization, such as the rise of popular culture and global consumerism. The concept of culture identity will also be defined.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">2.1 The rise and fall of </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">Global Culture and Local Culture<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">There is no doubt that globalisation has produced flows of people and products internationally and domestically</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN>This is because</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> the prices of mass produced products </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">have fallen as well as </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">the advances in transportation allow</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">ing</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> international companies to complete with local products.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">However, history has shown that </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">this flow also affects cultures.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">Recently, globalization has become the main enemy for academics, journalists, and political activists who loathe what they see as a trend toward cultural uniformity - according to <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Pells </SPAN></I>(2002), where in the same article he mentions that many see American consumer culture as being &#8220;the&#8221; global culture and <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Hollywood</SPAN></I><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">,</SPAN> <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">McDonald's</SPAN></I> and <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Disneyland</SPAN></I><SPAN style="COLOR: blue"> </SPAN>are eradicating regional and local eccentricities; many see any non-Euro-American culture as being a local culture. However I would argue that these so called non-Euro-American cultures such as <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Bollywood</SPAN></I> and other Asian films (e.g. The Hong Kong</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"> action film, <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon</SPAN></I>) are equally powerful. Therefore such an observation is insufficient to explain the nature of local culture. But before defining what culture really is, it is necessary to understand globalization.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Held &amp; McGrew</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> (2002) stated that <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;Globalization denotes the expanding scale, growing magnitude, speeding up and deepening impact of interregional flows and patterns of social interactions. It refers to a shift of transformation in the scale of human social organization that links distant communities and expands the reach of power relation across the world&#8217;s major regions and continents&#8221;<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN><o:p></o:p></I></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 24.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">Whereas <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Robertson </SPAN></I>(1992) referred to globalization as <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;the compression of the world and the intensification of consciousness of the world as a whole</I>&#8221;. </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Taken from the idea of this statement, </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">it would be sensible to view each group of people&#8217;s consciousness</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">(i.e. ways of doing and ways of thinking) as culture and</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> it does not mean that globalization necessarily needs to take place or take precedence over local, national or regional orders of social life.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN><SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;</SPAN>The timing of social change also plays a major role in global </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">cultural migration. This idea seems to be supported by <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Per Gjerde</SPAN></I>(2004) where he said in an interview with<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"> <SPAN class=MsoHyperlink><SPAN style="TEXT-DECORATION: none; text-underline: none"><U><FONT color=#0000ff>McNulty</FONT></U></SPAN></SPAN></I>(2004), <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;Psychologists often speak about the power of culture as an independent variable, but they fail to pay attention to the power structures that frame culture,&#8221;</I>.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN>He believed that the troubles emanated from how researchers use nations as proxies for cultural units, therefore giving the impression that cultures are only linked to national boundaries and geographical areas, like &#8216;East&#8217; and &#8216;West&#8217;; &#8216;American individualism&#8217; and &#8216;Asian collectivism.&#8217; This means that people are often being &#8220;grouped&#8221; purely on their location or origin. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">I have similar findings: <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">whonose</SPAN></I> (2004) is an Online Journal (blog) English writer who is a Christian,</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> born and bread in the </SPAN><st1:country-region><st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">UK</SPAN></st1:place></st1:country-region><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">but who is very fond of and has vast knowledge of East Asian culture.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN>Quoting from an un-structured interview between us, he said <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;<SPAN style="COLOR: black">I'd say I am an established Englishman that isn't happy with the traditions imposed on being an Englishman. I found nothing to respect or be proud of in my own culture, so I embraced others. I found heaps to restore my faith in humans in Eastern culture so that&#8217;s where my focus lie</SPAN>s&#8221;</I>, other evidence of this type of </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">reverse culture flows and un-structure grouping is shown by how &#8216;</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">feng-shui</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">&#8217; and &#8216;</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">yoga</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">&#8217;</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"> </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">are</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"> increasing its influences in the west.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Interestingly<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue"> whonose&#8217;s </SPAN></I>(2004) idea of living was only made possible partly by the advances of technology, where such an idea would be unheard of in previous generations and this</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"> idea</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> of how technology helped the push of culture migration </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">is also supported by<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue"> Rothkop</SPAN></I> (1997) </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">where he noted <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;</I></SPAN><I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">it is the first time in history that virtually every individual at every level of society can sense the impact of international changes. They can see and hear it in their media, taste it in their food, and sense it in the products that they buy.</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">&#8221;</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: black; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P style="TEXT-JUSTIFY: inter-ideograph; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; TEXT-ALIGN: justify; tab-stops: 207.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Garamond; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">This statement is confirmed by a survey of the &#8216;Information Generation&#8217; (iGeneration, age 18-30) published by <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">The Times</SPAN></I> (2004). This survey not only showed how their attitudes on everyday issues differs greatly to that of older generation</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Garamond; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">s</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Garamond; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> and for the first time it also shows their perspective on other factors such</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Garamond; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> as</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Garamond; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> culture and the trustworthiness of different races. This survey has symbolised that culture is not confined in geographical areas as the</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Garamond; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt"> new</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Garamond; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt"> &#8216;iG</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Garamond; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">eneration&#8217; are more willing to accept the non-dominate culture</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Garamond; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt"> </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Garamond; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">than the older generations even though they are all located in the same area. As one comment in the survey said:<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 207.0pt; mso-margin-top-alt: auto; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: black; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial">&#8220;Race has never really been an issue. A lot of my friends are mixed race. At school there were some people who were small minded but you just ignored that. I think the younger generation in general is more tolerant because there is such a mix of races in music, film and television. Because there is much more exposure, it&#8217;s become more mainstream in the cultures so the younger generation accept it a lot more.&#8221; <o:p></o:p></SPAN></I></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">The effects of cultural migration experience has indeed become very apparent in the UK recently as shown by the joint declaration issued by the prime ministers of India and Britain which stated that Indian culture is becoming an important component of multiethnic Britain </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">-</SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">The Times of India </SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">(20th </SPAN><SPAN class=topdate1><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: windowtext; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Garamond">SEPTEMBER, 2004</SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">). <SPAN style="COLOR: black"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></SPAN></P><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Garamond; LETTER-SPACING: -0.1pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: EN-GB; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><BR style="PAGE-BREAK-BEFORE: always" clear=all></SPAN> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">2.2 Culture identity<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Everyone has a culture identity because it is nature that human can not survive as an individual. Some people may be unclear their identity because the effects of culture immigration or forces adoption of second culture, but nevertheless, in general culture identity can be understand as:<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">&#8220;The culture of a nation comprises many aspects. It is shaped and moulded by the background of its people, their languages and beliefs. It includes the many ways that people express themselves in words, movement, music and images. It reveals itself in the ways people choose to spend their time, the music they listen to, the books they read and the films they watch, the sports they encourage, and the historical sites and natural environments they protect. These factors shape how a nation sees itself, and how it establishes its identity.&#8221;</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"> - <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Statistics </SPAN></I></SPAN><st1:country-region><st1:place><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">Canada</SPAN></I></st1:place></st1:country-region><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"> (1995). </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">To put it in simpler words, as <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Flarlex </SPAN></I>(2004) defined, <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;</I></SPAN><I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial">Cultural identity is the (feeling of) identity of a group or</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> individual or of an individual </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial">as far as she/he is influenced by her/his belonging to a group or culture</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial">.&#8221;</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></I></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">Referring back to the above</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> UK example, indeed, amongst other things the Indian or Chinese </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">&#8216;</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">tak</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">eaway&#8217;</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> has become a way of life in the UK </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">and many might see such ways of life as an example of how globalization can destroy national identities, </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">but </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">in truth </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">the traditional UK dish of fish and chips is still the surviving<SPAN class=msoIns><INS cite=mailto:Robin%20Perry dateTime=2004-11-21T12:14>.</INS></SPAN> The introduction of such global cultures as the &#8216;Chinese takeaway&#8217; does not mean people are about to abandon their customs, family and religious or national identities.</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> In fact, as<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue"> Tomlinson</SPAN></I> (2002) argues, cultural identity is much more the product of globalization than its victim. Basically, because people like to feel they belong to a group and that there are differences between groups it naturally flows that those difference are the identities.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">Tomlinson&#8217;s </SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">(2002) idea of cultural identity is connections which exist locally, autonomous and well defined where these connections sustain a balance between geographical place and cultural experience and because these experiences are treated as their possession where they can also be inherited, they are also equally fragile and need protecting and preserving from being lost. This is also the reason why </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">globalization has become the main enemy for academics, journalists, and political activists.</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">2.3 Globalization, popular culture and global</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt"> consumerism</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Waters</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> (2003) identified several elements of the new paradigm of globalization.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN>It is not necessary to detail all those elements but one of the most important is that globalization involves a collapse of universalism and particularism. The collapse basically means people see themselves as being both an individual and a member of the human species. This is an important fact because it affects the psychology of </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">each individual</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">, for example, depending on the situation, one would choose to be </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">treated as an individual </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">rather than be </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">being treated as member of a</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> group as long as it provides a better advantage. The other major element is that globalization involves extended tolerance of risk taking, as <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Waters </SPAN></I>(2003) pointed out in the same paper:<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"> &#8220;In previous eras one trusted the immediate, the knowable, the present and the material. Under globalization individuals extends trust to unknown persons, to impersonal forces and norms and to patterns of symbolic exchange that appears to be beyond the control of any concrete individual or group of individuals&#8221;<o:p></o:p></I></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">This extended tolerance on risk taking and trust would be a major advantage for internet shopping sites as gaining trust is the most important aspect on gaining sales (the subject of trust will be explained later on in this report). </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">The rise of </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">popular culture</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> could be one of the reasons</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> th</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">at help this </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">push of the extended risk</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">. </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">There is various ways to define popular culture, as <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Storey </SPAN></I>(2001) mentions, </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">popular culture</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> can be simply things or ways of doing things that is well like by people. Others would suggest that it is culture that is the remaining sub-product of </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">&#8216;</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">high culture</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">&#8217;</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">, i.e. cultures that do not meet the standards to qualify as &#8216;high culture&#8217;. Either way, popular cultures are more acceptable by ordinary people and </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">since popular culture promote</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> the ideas of risk taking</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> hence the rise of trust. </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">The other reason of increased trust is because of the products of popular culture - the &#8216;image driven culture&#8217;, as <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Gottdiener (</SPAN></I>2001) said, image driven culture is <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;material goods are not connected directly to the demand of life, instead, they are converted to signs, people respond to these goods as images and signs&#8221;</I>. So people trust something as long as it has a trusting image, for example, in a movie, a good looking person is always the &#8216;hero&#8217; and trustworthy, and the &#8216;villain&#8217; are always less than average looking, where in fact it is not necessary true in the &#8216;real&#8217; world. For example, spider has the image of poison and being scary and many adults are indeed scared of it, but babies are quite comfortable being next the spider, this is because they have not been subjected to &#8216;image bombardment&#8217;.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">One of the reasons for this major push of image driven culture is because the </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">content of popular culture is determined in large partly by industries that distribute</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">cultural materials,</SPAN><SPAN> such as TV, Films etc where they have spread the ideas of having these images and signs are important. This has also increase the steps of global <STRONG><SPAN style="FONT-WEIGHT: normal; FONT-FAMILY: Garamond; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">c</SPAN>onsumerism, as </STRONG></SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">BrainyEncyclopedia</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"> (2004) defined, </SPAN><I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">&#8220;is </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">the tendency of people to identify strongly with products or services they consume, especially those with commercial brand names and obvious status-enhancing appeal, e.g. expensive automobile, rich jewellery. It is a pejorative term which most people deny, having some more specific excuse or rationale for consumption than the idea that they're &#8216;compelled to consume&#8217;.</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">To those who accept the idea of consumerism, these products are not seen as valuable in themselves, but rather as social signals or a reducer of anxiety about belonging.</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">&#8221; <o:p></o:p></SPAN></I></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 24.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Furthermore to global consumerism, as <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Smith</SPAN> (</I>2003) mentions, despite the complexity of culture difference, the image driven culture is accepted worldwide because there are many common needs that manifest themselves into common wants and purchasing patterns, particular when there are similar levels of economic wealth. These convergence of consumerism are partly due to &#8220;Compunications&#8221;- where the meaning of this term is </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">the uniting of computers and communications technologies</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> such as most communication artefacts have became more accessible, personalise etc. These effects have reduced the complexity of global marketing, </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">&#8216;</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">one fits all</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">&#8217;</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> advertising campaign for all cultures, for example, global brand such as Nike and Microsoft uses the same advertising campaign.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 24.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">To conclude, although in some ways it seems globalization has undermined certain local cultures, international companies could actually create opportunities for entering into local markets</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> by </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">understand</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">ing the target market&#8217;s </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">local culture and there effects.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Cohen and Kennedy</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> (2000</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">)<SPAN style="COLOR: red"> </SPAN>in the book &#8216;Global Sociology&#8217; identified three types response on the part of local cultures to the supposedly homogenizing of global consumerism.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 35.7pt; TEXT-INDENT: -17.85pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: list 36.0pt right 432.0pt; mso-list: l26 level1 lfo21"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">Indigenization - </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB">The term <SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-style: italic">indigenization</SPAN> is widely used in Christian missions where it refers to making the Gospel understood in the language and thought forms of the local people and to efforts to make the church autonomous in its organization. <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Mennonite Historical Society of </SPAN></I></SPAN><st1:country-region><st1:place><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB">Canada</SPAN></I></st1:place></st1:country-region><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB"> </SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB">(2004), where in the field of culture research, it can understand as </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">how a particular external culture occurring naturally in a particular region or environment.</SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> Cohen and Kennedy</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">(2000) uses how Christmas incorporate into Japanese gift culture with no difficulty and how Bollywood is an interesting case of indigenization as it has adapted Hollywood mass media culture.</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 17.85pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt right 432.0pt; mso-list: l18 level1 lfo8"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">Re-invention and rediscovery &#8211; </SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Cohen and Kennedy</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> (2000) has explained this term as the revival of declining tradition culture, they gave an example on how </SPAN><st1:country-region><st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">UK</SPAN></st1:place></st1:country-region><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">&#8217;s cheeses and sausages, that are traditional, are forgotten. But due to the &#8220;resistance to heterogeneity&#8221; where in this case, resistant to global cuisine, it was revived. A more recent example by experience of the author was in </SPAN><st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Hong Kong</SPAN></st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> where a traditional Chinese Tea house offering fast version of tradition of Chinese food to compete with American fast food restaurants.</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 18pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt right 432.0pt; mso-list: l18 level1 lfo8"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">Creolization &#8211; it is referred as how a mix of culture has created new forms of invention, </SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Cohen and Kennedy</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> (2000) gave examples of how Indian spices are use in traditional stews and pie. Creolization is very apparent in </SPAN><st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Hong Kong</SPAN></st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> as inhabitants of the city are being educated in two different cultures. One more recently example is how McDonalds in HK sells rice as well as burgers on their menu.</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">More importantly, culture is</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> about how an individual or group of people do things, grouping or categorising is not just about finding out their geographic locations and one&#8217;s traditions, and more importantly, culture</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"> changes over time as evidence in history such as the colonization in </SPAN><st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">Hong Kong</SPAN></st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"> by the British and its handover back to </SPAN><st1:country-region><st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">China</SPAN></st1:place></st1:country-region><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">. Another example is</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> a survey conducted by <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Grey</SPAN></I> (2002) in the </SPAN><st1:country-region><st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">United States</SPAN></st1:place></st1:country-region><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> where it shows<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">85 percent have cut back on spending<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">90 percent said that the simple joys in life is what matters the most <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">87 percent were more aware of the importance of the family<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">This is significantly different to a similar survey done in 1997 where the main goal of life is to afford as many luxuries as they can.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">Although it is still debatable whether globalization undermines local culture, it is no doubt that it is happening and it indeed created many opportunities, especially the effects of </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">compunications such as the Internet</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"> where it created many e-commerce businesses.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">Culture is a concept that is impossible to explain and fully understood in the space of a section but it is hope that by investigating culture, it would form the basis of further research and gives reader an idea of how culture affects psychology and attitude.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt; COLOR: #333399; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Garamond; LETTER-SPACING: -0.1pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: EN-GB; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><BR style="PAGE-BREAK-BEFORE: always" clear=all></SPAN> <DIV style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; PADDING-RIGHT: 0cm; BORDER-TOP: medium none; PADDING-LEFT: 0cm; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-bottom-alt: solid windowtext .75pt"> <P class=MsoBodyText style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; PADDING-RIGHT: 0cm; BORDER-TOP: medium none; PADDING-LEFT: 0cm; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: medium none; mso-padding-alt: 0cm 0cm 0cm 0cm; mso-border-bottom-alt: solid windowtext .75pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt; COLOR: #333399; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">3. </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt; COLOR: #333399; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">Trust <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></DIV> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">In the previous section the idea of culture has been defined to a certain degree and the effects of globalization has also been described. This chapter will concentrate on the other major element to an Internet Shopping Site &#8211; Trust, where it will investigate what causes and influence trust.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoHeading9 style="TEXT-JUSTIFY: inter-ideograph; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; PAGE-BREAK-AFTER: auto; TEXT-ALIGN: justify; mso-pagination: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">3.1 The importance of </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">Tr</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt; mso-font-kerning: 0pt">ust in relation to internet shopping</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt; mso-font-kerning: 0pt"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoHeading9 style="TEXT-JUSTIFY: inter-ideograph; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; PAGE-BREAK-AFTER: auto; TEXT-ALIGN: justify; mso-pagination: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-font-kerning: 0pt"><SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;</SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">Trust is needed whenever there is interaction between parties of two or more; it is also a fundamental requirement of economic activity. Many different definitions of trust have been described in many different contexts: from legal definition (e.g. investment trust, living trust) to a more personal definition, such as <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;firm reliance on the integrity, ability or character of a person&#8221;</I> - <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Panetta</SPAN></I> (2002). Rather then restating all these definitions, this section will specifically describe trust related to internet shopping. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">In a study by <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Rutter </SPAN></I>(2001), he discovered that customer trust has very little relationship to</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> the understanding of</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"> technical security: <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;trust is not something that can be offered to technologies regardless of how artificially intelligent or interactive they may appear. Trust is a good traded between individuals rather than between people and mediating technologies.&#8221;</I> <SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;</SPAN>It should be noted that this statement does not mean to say security can be discarded as it is essential to provide an e-commerce service. It just means that the user would not question how secure the security measures</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> really are</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"> as long as it has the image of security or be told it is secure (refer to the image driven culture in the previous section).<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">The </SPAN><st1:City><st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">Oxford</SPAN></st1:place></st1:City><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"> dictionary defines trust as <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;firm belief in the reliability, tr</I></SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">uth, ability, or strength of someone or something; the state of being responsible for someone or something.&#8221;</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"><SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN><st1:place><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">Clark</SPAN></SPAN></I></st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> (2000) has defined </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">trust as </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">relationship</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">s</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">where the dictionary&#8217;s definition of trust is</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> direct relationship which is the most effective trust and often it is built based on past experience</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> whereas</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> the </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">i</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">mage of trustworthiness is the least effective. In business terms it is whether the consumer believes the competence of the service provider can adequately satisfy their expectation. In traditional shopping, the trust relationship can be build by giving customers visual clues, such as the size and lay-out of stores and interaction between staff, as customers&#8217; past experiences affect their judgement. <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Grabner-Kraeuter</SPAN></I> (2002), <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Chong</SPAN></I>(2003)<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">If businesses require a higher level of trust, the following definition: <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;credit given, especially delivery of property or merchandise is upon future payment, or exchange without immediate receipt of an equivalent; selling or buying by trust&#8221;</I> - <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Webster's 1913 Dictionary</SPAN></I> seems to be the most appropriate. And this is exactly what Internet shopping requires, because it is more difficult to promote risk taking from the consumer than &#8216;real&#8217; shopping despite the rise of popular culture. This is because the trading stretches over spaces and times in which payment and personal information are also required before the receipt of the goods. Hence, the customer (trustor) has to have enough trust in the company (trustee) to overcome the risk considerations in order to use its services.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN>In other words, trust is a decision factor on whether to make that purchase as suggested by <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Grabner-Kraeuter</SPAN></I> (2002) where he said, <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;Having only limited cognitive resources available, consumers seek to reduce the uncertainty and complexity of transactions in electronic markets by applying mental shortcuts. One effective mental shortcut is trust&#8221;</I>. To be more precise, it is whether the customer can risk believing in the company will fulfilling the order on time whilst providing security of information and customer support. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">Much research has been done on how to gain cognitive trust, such as trust seals, whereas <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Riegelsberger </SPAN></I>(2003) suggested human trust decisions are also based on affective reactions, which can be triggered by interpersonal cues. One interpersonal cue he was investigating was the use of photographs: <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Fogg </SPAN></I>(2002) found that photos accompanying on-line articles can increase their credibility. Usability can also play a</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">n</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> important role in gaining trust, as confirmed by <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Lanford </SPAN></I>(2004) where in his paper he also suggests design guidelines to promote trustworthiness. <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Kim</SPAN></I> (2003) on the other hand suggested a framework explaining the subse</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">quent relationships of trust and satisfaction (trust? satisfaction? post-trust? long-term trust) where long-term trust is the goal of the framework and it depends on the post-purchase process (i.e. trustworthiness) rather than the first-time use.</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 24.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">3.</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">2 Influences on trust building <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial">&#8220;After a doctor, the person we would most trust is the average person who's 'just like us&#8217;&#8221; -</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial"> <SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Hart </SPAN>(2004)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 85.7pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">It should become clear that Trust is the single most important concept on a shopping site, but the question is what causes one to have trust, <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Gidden </SPAN></I>(2001)<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN>mentioned in his book <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;Trust in other people used to be based in local community. Living in a more globalize society, however our lives are influence by people we meet, who may be living on the far side of the world from us&#8221;,</I> indeed, as mentioned before, globalization has created opportunity and barriers, and even with the help of image influence, trust is still hard to gain. And whether of not there is advance technology, the influences of trust remains the same i.e. Factors that are affecting people&#8217;s judgement, hence social and culture factors.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">3.2.1 </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">How cultural</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">/social</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt"> factors affect trust</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p><SPAN style="TEXT-DECORATION: none">&nbsp;</SPAN></o:p></SPAN></U></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">In <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Gidden&#8217;s </SPAN></I>theory, trust means having confidence in an &#8216;abstract system&#8217; where trust and risk are bound together. Humans need to have &#8216;ontological security&#8217; in order to live; it refers to a person&#8217;s basic sense of safety in the world where it includes a basic &#8216;trust&#8217; of other people.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN>This basic sense of security is developed early on in childhood and continues to play an important role in adult life which means the way a person is taught, trained and other influences such as experience.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN>Recalling from pervious sections, this is the elements of cultures and thus culture has an affect in the way of how person gives trust and it would be different in different culture.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">&#8220;Trust theories and mechanisms developed in the western context might not apply for other societies, especially since culture may affect the antecedents of trust&#8221; - </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">Chong</SPAN></I><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> </SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">(2003).<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Simon</SPAN></I> (2001) has also indicated that <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">"Culture is always a collective phenomenon, because it is at least partly shared with people who live or lived within the same social environment, which is where it is learned.&#8221;</I> Meaning the peer-group influence and life experience would affect one&#8217;s perspective, this is shown by a study done by <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Tseng and Stern</SPAN></I> (1996), they discovered significant differences in the information gathering behaviour between North American and Asian cultural groups, conducted within a financial decision setting, Asians were found to desire higher levels of interpersonal communication (e.g. personal selling), which, in turn, affected the perceived trustworthiness of the information source <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Steinwachs </SPAN></I>(1999)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">In </SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">Lanford&#8217;s</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">(2004) article, although the guidelines (as shown below) on building trustworthiness have not been designed to facilitate culture, it </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">would still be</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> possible to </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">view</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> them as culture</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> implemented</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> if presented from </SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: blue">Hofstede</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB> (1990) </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">perspective.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <TABLE class=MsoTableGrid style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; BORDER-TOP: medium none; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; BORDER-BOTTOM: medium none; BORDER-COLLAPSE: collapse; mso-padding-alt: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-insideh: .5pt solid windowtext; mso-border-insidev: .5pt solid windowtext; mso-yfti-tbllook: 480" cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 border=1> <TBODY> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 0"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #336677; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 426.1pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=568> <P class=MsoCommentText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 6pt; TEXT-INDENT: 0cm; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 9.35pt 279.0pt right 432.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: white; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Fig. 2 <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">Lanford&#8217;s</I> (2004) guideline on building trustworthiness <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 1; mso-yfti-lastrow: yes"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 426.1pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=568> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 54pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: list 54.0pt; mso-list: l15 level1 lfo9; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Fulfil the customer&#8217;s expectations, <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 54pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: list 54.0pt; mso-list: l15 level1 lfo9; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Let the user feel in control, <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 54pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: list 54.0pt; mso-list: l15 level1 lfo9; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Put consumer interests above your own, <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 54pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: list 54.0pt; mso-list: l15 level1 lfo9; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Build a good reputation, i.e., not just real but also perceived trustworthiness,<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 54pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: list 54.0pt; mso-list: l15 level1 lfo9; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Consider moving certain risky actions to third parties.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoCommentText style="BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 6pt 9.35pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 9.35pt 279.0pt right 432.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoCommentText style="BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 6pt 9.35pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 9.35pt 279.0pt right 432.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Source:<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue"> Lanford </SPAN></I><SPAN style="COLOR: black">(2004)</SPAN><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 36pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">The guidelines are somewhat common sense as the entire factor list is important in any culture, business and however distant.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN>The interesting part is <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;Build a good reputation, i.e., not just real but also perceived trustworthiness&#8221;</I>. The question is how to design a site that looks like it is trustworthy, or in order words, use certain main tricks or influence for believing in you. Before moving onto the detailed presentation and aesthetic front of web design in the next section, here is an article by <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Marcus &amp; Gould</SPAN></I><SPAN style="COLOR: blue"> </SPAN>(2000) which explains in detail the relations between <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Hofstede&#8217;s</SPAN></I> five dimensions and web design. </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">One thing which needs to be noted is that </SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">Marcus &amp; Gould</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"> </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">(2000)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> inspected websites mainly on &#8216;information purpose&#8217; sites such as government and universities and did not focus on a B2C commerce site. </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <TABLE class=MsoTableGrid style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; BORDER-TOP: medium none; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; BORDER-BOTTOM: medium none; BORDER-COLLAPSE: collapse; mso-padding-alt: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-insideh: .5pt solid windowtext; mso-border-insidev: .5pt solid windowtext; mso-yfti-tbllook: 480" cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 border=1> <TBODY> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 0"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #336677; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 426.1pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=568> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 24.0pt"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: white; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Fig.3 Hofstede&#8217;s</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: white; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"> five dimensions and how it might affect web design </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: white; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 1; mso-yfti-lastrow: yes"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 426.1pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=568> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">&#8220;<B style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal">Power-distance</B> <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 53.85pt; TEXT-INDENT: -17.85pt; tab-stops: list 54.0pt; mso-list: l6 level1 lfo10; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Access to information: highly (high PD) vs. less-highly (low PD) structured. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 53.85pt; TEXT-INDENT: -17.85pt; tab-stops: list 54.0pt; mso-list: l6 level1 lfo10; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Hierarchies in mental models: tall vs. shallow. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 53.85pt; TEXT-INDENT: -17.85pt; tab-stops: list 54.0pt; mso-list: l6 level1 lfo10; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Emphasis on the social and moral order (e.g., nationalism or religion)and its symbols: significant/frequent vs. minor/infrequent use. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 53.85pt; TEXT-INDENT: -17.85pt; tab-stops: list 54.0pt; mso-list: l6 level1 lfo10; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Focus on expertise, authority, experts, certifications, official stamps, or logos: strong vs. weak. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 53.85pt; TEXT-INDENT: -17.85pt; tab-stops: list 54.0pt; mso-list: l6 level1 lfo10; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Prominence given to leaders vs. citizens, customers, or employees. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 53.85pt; TEXT-INDENT: -17.85pt; tab-stops: list 54.0pt; mso-list: l6 level1 lfo10; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Importance of security and restrictions or barriers to access: explicit, enforced, frequent restrictions on users vs. transparent, integrated, implicit freedom to roam. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 53.85pt; TEXT-INDENT: -17.85pt; tab-stops: list 54.0pt; mso-list: l6 level1 lfo10; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Social roles used to organize information (e.g., a managers' section obvious to all but sealed off from non-managers): frequent vs. infrequent <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 36pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 5pt 0cm; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><B style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Collectivism vs. individualism <o:p></o:p></SPAN></B></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 53.85pt; TEXT-INDENT: -17.85pt; tab-stops: list 54.0pt; mso-list: l11 level1 lfo11; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Motivation based on personal achievement: maximized (expect the extra-ordinary) for individualist cultures vs. underplayed (in favour of group achievement) for collectivist cultures. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 53.85pt; TEXT-INDENT: -17.85pt; tab-stops: list 54.0pt; mso-list: l11 level1 lfo11; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Images of success: demonstrated through materialism and consumerism vs. achievement of social-political agendas. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 53.85pt; TEXT-INDENT: -17.85pt; tab-stops: list 54.0pt; mso-list: l11 level1 lfo11; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Rhetorical style: controversial/argumentative speech and tolerance or encouragement of extreme claims vs. official slogans and subdued hyperbole and controversy. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 53.85pt; TEXT-INDENT: -17.85pt; tab-stops: list 54.0pt; mso-list: l11 level1 lfo11; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Prominence given youth and action vs. aged, experienced, wise leaders and states of being. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 54pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 54.0pt; mso-list: l11 level1 lfo11; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Importance given individuals vs. products shown by themselves or with groups. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 53.85pt; TEXT-INDENT: -17.85pt; tab-stops: list 54.0pt; mso-list: l11 level1 lfo11; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Underlying sense of social morality: emphasis on truth vs. relationships. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 53.85pt; TEXT-INDENT: -17.85pt; tab-stops: list 54.0pt; mso-list: l11 level1 lfo11; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Emphasis on change: what is new and unique vs. tradition and history. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 54pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 54.0pt; mso-list: l11 level1 lfo11; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Willingness to provide personal information vs. protection of personal data differentiating the individual from the group. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 36pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><B style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Femininity vs. masculinity <o:p></o:p></SPAN></B></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><B style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></B></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">High-masculinity cultures would focus on the following user-interface and design elements:<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l29 level1 lfo12; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Traditional gender/family/age distinctions. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l29 level1 lfo12; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Work tasks, roles, and mastery, with quick results for limited tasks. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l29 level1 lfo12; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Navigation oriented to exploration and control. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l29 level1 lfo12; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Attention gained through games and competitions. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l29 level1 lfo12; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Graphics, sound, and animation used for utilitarian purposes. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 18pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Feminine cultures would emphasize the following user-interface elements:<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l29 level1 lfo12; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Blurring of gender roles. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l29 level1 lfo12; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Mutual cooperation, exchange, and support, (rather than mastery and winning). <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l29 level1 lfo12; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Attention gained through poetry, visual aesthetics, and appeals to unifying values. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 18pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><B style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></B></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><B style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Uncertainty avoidance <o:p></o:p></SPAN></B></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><B style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></B></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">High-UA cultures would emphasize the following:<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 54pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 54.0pt; mso-list: l22 level1 lfo13; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Simplicity, with clear metaphors, limited choices, and restricted amounts of data. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 54pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 54.0pt; mso-list: l22 level1 lfo13; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Attempts to reveal or forecast the results or implications of actions before users act. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 54pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 54.0pt; mso-list: l22 level1 lfo13; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Navigation schemes intended to prevent users from becoming lost. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 54pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 54.0pt; mso-list: l22 level1 lfo13; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Mental models and help systems that focus on reducing "user errors." <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 54pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 54.0pt; mso-list: l22 level1 lfo13; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Redundant cues (colour, typography, sound, etc.) to reduce ambiguity. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 36pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Low UA cultures would emphasize the reverse:<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 54pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 54.0pt; mso-list: l19 level1 lfo14; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Complexity with maximal content and choices. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 54pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 54.0pt; mso-list: l19 level1 lfo14; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Acceptance (even encouragement) of wandering and risk, with a stigma on "over-protection." <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 54pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 54.0pt; mso-list: l19 level1 lfo14; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Less control of navigation; for example, links might open new windows leading away from the original location. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 54pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 54.0pt; mso-list: l19 level1 lfo14; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Mental models and help systems might focus on understanding underlying concepts rather than narrow tasks. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 54pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 54.0pt; mso-list: l19 level1 lfo14; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Coding of colour, typography, and sound to maximize information (multiple links without redundant cueing). <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><B style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Long- vs. short-term orientation <o:p></o:p></SPAN></B></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><B style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></B></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Based on the definition, high LT countries would emphasize the following aspects of user-interface design:<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 54pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 54.0pt; mso-list: l14 level1 lfo15; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Content focused on practice and practical value. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 54pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 54.0pt; mso-list: l14 level1 lfo15; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Relationships as a source of information and credibility. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 54pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 54.0pt; mso-list: l14 level1 lfo15; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Patience in achieving results and goals. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 36pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Low LT countries would emphasize the contrary:<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 54pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 54.0pt; mso-list: l25 level1 lfo16; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Content focused on truth and certainty of beliefs. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 54pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 54.0pt; mso-list: l25 level1 lfo16; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Rules as a source of information and credibility. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 54pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 54.0pt; mso-list: l25 level1 lfo16; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Desire for immediate results and achievement of goals<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 24.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Source: <SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;</SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Marcus &amp; Gould</SPAN></I> (2000)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 24.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">Both <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Hofstede</SPAN></I></SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">&#8217;</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">s and </SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">Marcus &amp; Gould</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"> </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">work has been highly regarded and although there is some resistance to the </SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">Hofstede&#8217;s </SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">methodologies such as<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue"> McSweeney's</SPAN></I><SPAN style="COLOR: black"> critique (2002) and </SPAN>a blog posted by <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Cheung</SPAN></I> (2004)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">. But there is no doubt that culture/social factors have a certain influence on trust as </SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">Marcus &amp; Gould </SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">shows</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> and </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">better understanding of how cultural differences will certainly affect consumer evaluations may help the design of international websites such as multilingual sites, the strategies includes how parallels can be made with the interpersonal clues. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">Much research relating to culture and web design has been carried out in recent years by referring to<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue"> Hofstede</SPAN></I></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">,</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"> </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">e</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">xamples include a project by <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Barber and Badre</SPAN></I> (1998) which aims to understand the relationship between culture and usability, and has produced a list of cultural markers of web designs</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> and</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"> </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">a</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"> more recent study by <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Chau, Cole, Massey, Montoya-Weiss, O'Keefe</SPAN> </I>(2002)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> where they</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"> noted: <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;consumer interfaces targeted to different countries/cultures may not need to be completely different from each other, but there must be some features that allow the targeted audience to feel at home.&#8221;</I> <SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;</SPAN>The results from the <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Simon</SPAN></I><SPAN style="COLOR: aqua"> </SPAN>(2001) study also confirm that there are indeed differences between cultural and gender-based perception and satisfaction with websites</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">. But as the previous section argues, with culture studies, there is always the danger of people being put in groups purely by their geographic location as the study above has done. This method of grouping has become a serious problem due to the escalation of &#8220;Compunication&#8221;.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN>One of the main problems is how the Internet has created a global and universal audience whereby each person can gain global information easily, meaning person A from country X and person B from country Z actually desires the same thing even though they live in opposite site of the world. As </SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">whonose</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"> (2004) mentioned in previous section, </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">one classic example of &#8220;Compunication&#8221;, such as the use of media coverage, is the &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Beckham Phenomenon</SPAN></I>&#8221; in 2003, where he has been considered as a hero and iconic figure in many East Asian countries; even through he does not have any direct relationship with them.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: blue; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">3.2.2 </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: blue; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">Aesthetic</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: blue; FONT-FAMILY: 'Times New Roman'; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB">Discard the effects of global and local culture for a moment and see the presentational site of web design as a whole. Referring back to image driven culture, where people respond better to something with better images. This is true of all cultures because it is the nature of human beings, meaning one trusts something more beautiful, despite the idea of beautiful is difficult to define. From <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Pythagorean</SPAN></I><SPAN style="COLOR: blue"> </SPAN>to <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Plato</SPAN></I>, there are many attempts in defining aesthetic theories, such as some have suggested that aesthetic experience allows us to glimpse something of the noumenal world and other suggested that experience of beauty involved a certain type of response and a certain type </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">of</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB"> stimulus. But </SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">Leath</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">(1996) in his paper defined all experience as aesthetic, based on the belief that all experience is perception where he also said <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;aesthetic experience is not characterized by distance, disinterestedness, or beauty, as some aestheticians have supposed, but by a concentration originating in the organism causing it to perceive its environment with a heightened or more vivid perception.&#8221;</I></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB">It can take forever to detail the ideas of aesthetics and does not matter if there will ever be a universal theory on it but one thing which is certain is that beauty is power, as the</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"> French writer <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Anatole France </SPAN></I>once said, <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;Beauty is the greatest power in this world&#8221;. </I><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">This idea seems to be supported by the Italian </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US">Psyc</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">hologist</SPAN><I><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-WEIGHT: normal; FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Garamond; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><STRONG>Schelotto</STRONG></SPAN></I><STRONG><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-WEIGHT: normal; FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Garamond; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"> (2001) when she said,</SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> &#8220;Aesthetics have replaced ethics, so that stealing is no longer immoral, but being ugly and fat is.&#8221;</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">So the question lies on the methods on influencing the viewer so that the &#8216;objects&#8217;, &#8216;image&#8217; or the &#8216;idea&#8217; they are viewing are aesthetically pleasing. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></STRONG></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">According to <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Berleant </SPAN></I>(2004), amongst other things, culture influences perception.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN>He also defines cultural aesthetic as &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">the characteristic sensory, conceptual, and ideational matrix that constitutes the perceptual environment of a culture. It encompasses the typical qualities and configurations of colour, sound, texture, light, movement, smell, taste, perceptual pattern, space, temporal sensibility, and size in juxtaposition with the human body, and the influence of traditional patterns of belief and practice on the creation and apprehension of these qualities</I>.&#8221;</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">, where </SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">Jennings</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> (2000) also defined aesthetic as <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;The narrow meaning of aesthetics is generally embodied in purely visual aspects, often related to the principles of design (balance, emphasis, harmony, proportion, rhythm and unity)&#8221; </I>where the principles are always stressed in many cultures, such as the Yin and Yang where it focuses on the balance and harmony of power by two opposite sides and that these two sides can not live without each other (e.g. man and woman, light and dark, right or wrong etc.)<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"><SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;</SPAN><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">Furthermore, </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">In <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Karvonen</SPAN></I>&#8217;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">s</I> paper (2000), she shows how the &#8216;beautiness&#8217; of web design affects the feeling of online trust and emphasises that aesthetic experiences matter, even when - or especially when - we are not conscious of making them.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB">SAP design guild </SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB">(2004) published a guideline on simplification for usability, it mentions </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">how </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB">aesthetic factors serve as a motivational factor as well as an organizational factor </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">which they</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB"> both contribute to efficiency. It also further explained an aesthetic influence on motivation, trust and how it </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">creates better </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB">organization. So </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">aesthetics</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB"> </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">do </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB">not only mean it is more encouraging to use but it is in fact easier to use. This increase in motivation in proven by </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: black; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial">a group of researchers based at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) where they demonstrated that when heterosexual men recognize attractiveness in both female and male faces, they will expend effort to increase their viewing of attractive female faces only. The research also shows that areas of the brain previously identified as responding to such rewards as food, drugs and money also respond to facial beauty. The study appears in the November 8 issue of Neuron -</SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial">McGreevey </SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: black; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial">(2001) meaning beauty is link to the positive side of the brain trigging positive emotion.</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">The use of &#8216;sex appeal&#8217; and attractive image is well exercise in the field of media studies. This idea of </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">using image for more effective communication is first studied in the field semiotics where </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">semiotics has been defined as &#8216;the science of the life of sign in society&#8217; where it is the study of signs and their use as communicative tools. But one thing needs to point out is that signs can exist in any medium, and it </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">may be verbal, non-verbal, or both.</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">In a guide by <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Chandler</SPAN></I><SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"> (2001)</SPAN>, he also identify the influence of culture in semiotics, <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;Whilst technological determinists emphasize that semiotic ecologies are influenced by the fundamental design features of different media, it is important to recognize the importance of socio-cultural and historical factors in shaping how different media are used and their (ever-shifting) status within particular cultural contexts. For instance, many contemporary cultural theorists have remarked on the growth of the importance of visual media compared with linguistic media in contemporary society and the associated shifts in the communicative functions of such media.&#8221;</I><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Another point to argue is </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB">that aesthetic is related to culture because aesthetic relate</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">s</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB"> to previous thoughts, </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">as <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Ellsworth</SPAN></I> (2002) mentioned an argument where she says <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;many argue that emotions are basically innate an universal or that emotions are basically constructed by one&#8217;s culture&#8221;</I> this argument is based on the understanding that </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB">past experiences, education, training, our ideas and other kinds of knowledge would influence the way we understand a particular transfer unit on a particular medium (e.g. how one might see an image differently to another person, others might see a sign having a different meaning to another person)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> and since all humans belong to the same species, they would have the same emotions (e.g. happy, sad etc.). There is no need to understand the emotions in detail but it necessary to understand what and how to create positive emotion.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">It is understood that anyone will have a positive emotion when received or looking at something they &#8216;like&#8217; or furthermore to that &#8211; &#8216;Love&#8217;. Starting with first impressions, it is about how a person forms impression about other people by getting information about them and comparing that information with what they know and the actual information can arrive via various routes <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Wilson and McLaughlin </SPAN></I>(1996).<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN>It is very convenient that it is exactly what culture has been defined as and indeed first impression is important, so understanding how &#8216;like&#8217; is crucial, drawing from the field of psychology, <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Aronson, Wilson and Akert</SPAN></I> (2002) defined three causes of &#8216;liking&#8217;, <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">1. The propinquity effect - it is <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;the finding that the more we see and interact with people, the more likely they are to become friends&#8221;</I>, <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">2. Similarity &#8211; <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;propinquity increase familiarly, which leads to liking, but something more is needed to fuel a growing friendship or no romantic relationship and that fuel is Similarity&#8221;</I> <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">3. <SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;</SPAN>Reciprocal liking - where one will respond by liking if they are being liked. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">To summarized, a person will be liked if they are familiar to the viewer, similar to the viewer and pay attention to the viewer. Although this theory is aims at personal relationship it is actually very appropriate to be used for designing Internet sites, because although the Internet has a large audience, it is very personal to the person viewing it and the sites are also interactive to the viewer. This means that the viewer would judge it the same way as a person i.e. its appearance (format, graphic fonts etc), the way it speaks (the language of the content), and the way it responds to request (the linking, search result etc). <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">It is difficult to define in detail how the above literature can be put to practical use on Internet shopping site but it is certain that a likable Internet site would be same as a likable person where they would both trigger positive emotion i.e. be seen, be similar to other things that viewer sees and be personal and praise the viewer. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Garamond; LETTER-SPACING: -0.1pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-GB; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><BR style="PAGE-BREAK-BEFORE: always" clear=all></SPAN> <DIV style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; PADDING-RIGHT: 0cm; BORDER-TOP: medium none; PADDING-LEFT: 0cm; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-bottom-alt: solid windowtext .75pt"> <P class=MsoBodyText style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; PADDING-RIGHT: 0cm; BORDER-TOP: medium none; PADDING-LEFT: 0cm; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: medium none; mso-padding-alt: 0cm 0cm 0cm 0cm; mso-border-bottom-alt: solid windowtext .75pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt; COLOR: #333399; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">4</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt; COLOR: #333399; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">. Summarised theory <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></DIV> <P class=MsoHeading9 style="TEXT-JUSTIFY: inter-ideograph; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; PAGE-BREAK-AFTER: auto; TEXT-ALIGN: justify; mso-pagination: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Before moving on to the research section it is necessary t</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">o summarise the literature which </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">has been learnt so far:<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 24pt; TEXT-INDENT: -24pt; tab-stops: list 24.0pt right 432.0pt; mso-list: l20 level1 lfo26; mso-pagination: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Wingdings; mso-fareast-font-family: Wingdings; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Wingdings"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore"><IMG height=12 alt=* src="file:///C:/DOCUME~1/ALEXWO~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image001.gif" width=12><SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Trust is one of the most important factors for a person to purchase an item, particularly when the translation takes place virtually (i.e. <SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;</SPAN>On the Internet) as described </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">in section 3.</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; mso-pagination: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt 24pt; TEXT-INDENT: -24pt; tab-stops: list 24.0pt right 432.0pt; mso-list: l20 level1 lfo26; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; mso-pagination: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Wingdings; mso-fareast-font-family: Wingdings; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Wingdings"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore"><IMG height=12 alt=* src="file:///C:/DOCUME~1/ALEXWO~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image001.gif" width=12><SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">One way to gain trust is to make a person feel familiar to his or her purchase environment,. <SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;</SPAN>Recognising the culture would be an ideal way to know his ways of thinking.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; mso-pagination: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt 24pt; TEXT-INDENT: -24pt; tab-stops: list 24.0pt right 432.0pt; mso-list: l20 level1 lfo26; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; mso-pagination: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Wingdings; mso-fareast-font-family: Wingdings; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Wingdings"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore"><IMG height=12 alt=* src="file:///C:/DOCUME~1/ALEXWO~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image001.gif" width=12><SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Culture is about how an individual or group of people do things, grouping or categorising is not just about finding out their geographic locations and one&#8217;s traditions, it is in fact finding information on their current perspective and the current most acceptable ways of doing things.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; mso-pagination: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt 24pt; TEXT-INDENT: -24pt; tab-stops: list 24.0pt right 432.0pt; mso-list: l20 level1 lfo26; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; mso-pagination: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Wingdings; mso-fareast-font-family: Wingdings; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Wingdings"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore"><IMG height=12 alt=* src="file:///C:/DOCUME~1/ALEXWO~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image001.gif" width=12><SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">The strategy in using culture to influence is to send the message </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">in a way so that it </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">triggers personal cues</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">; hence</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> the viewer will pay more attention because the message is somehow familiar. The power of familiarity can not be underestimated, as shown in the previous section.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; mso-pagination: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 24pt; TEXT-INDENT: -24pt; tab-stops: list 24.0pt right 432.0pt; mso-list: l20 level1 lfo26"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Wingdings; mso-fareast-font-family: Wingdings; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Wingdings"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore"><IMG height=12 alt=* src="file:///C:/DOCUME~1/ALEXWO~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image001.gif" width=12><SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">There is no doubt that humans trust more &#8216;beautiful things&#8217;, meaning aesthetic factors serve </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">as</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> an<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN>important role in initial trust p</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">ersuas</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">ion. Although there are many attempts in defining aesthetic, it can</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> still</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> be assumed that &#8216;beautiful things&#8217; should affect one&#8217;s emotion and that person should somehow feel related to the transfer unit and hence that person&#8217;s eye would stay at the transfer unit longer that usual.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN>This is important as it increases the power of familiarity and &#8216;remember that one&#8217; effect.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN>It does not matter whether that emotion is familiar or desirable as long as it does not create a negative representation. <SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;</SPAN><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Research studies such as the remarkable<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue"> </SPAN></I></SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Eyetrack III</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"> (2003) are important. In this study they </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">took 46 Internet users and looked through their eyes while they are reading newspaper web site, utilizing sophisticated and non-intrusive </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">&#8216;</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">eye tracking</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">&#8217;</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"> equipment so that they can peer into user&#8217;s minds and see patterns that even they don't consciously see. This research provides us with very useful findings relating to how humans behave as general, fig.4 is a summarized version of the research. Although it does not address the culture factor it is an important finding for users in general specifically relating to the aesthetic factor. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <TABLE class=MsoTableGrid style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; BORDER-TOP: medium none; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; WIDTH: 437.4pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: medium none; BORDER-COLLAPSE: collapse; mso-padding-alt: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-insideh: .5pt solid windowtext; mso-border-insidev: .5pt solid windowtext; mso-yfti-tbllook: 480" cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 width=583 border=1> <TBODY> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 0"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #336677; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 437.4pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=583 colSpan=2> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: white; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Fig.4 Guidelines given by <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">EyetrackIII</I></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: white; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 1"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 95.4pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=127> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Article level<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 342pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=456> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 6pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l7 level1 lfo17; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">When readers encountered a story with an introductory paragraph, 95percent of them read all or part of the introductory paragraph.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 6pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l7 level1 lfo17; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Those who spent time carefully reading the introductory paragraph of a story on article-level pages typically spent little time with the full story.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 6pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l7 level1 lfo17; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Those who gave the intro paragraphs little time usually spent even less time with the story text.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 6pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l7 level1 lfo17; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Shorter paragraphs encouraged testers to continue reading.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 6pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l7 level1 lfo17; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Story text in one-column format was read more extensively than story text presented in a "newspaper-like" multiple-column format.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 6pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l7 level1 lfo17; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Subheads in online stories had little affect on how much of the first or top portion of the story was read when the reader's interest was strongest.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 6pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l7 level1 lfo17; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">However, subheads increased reading for "skimmers" and for those whose attention in a story was beginning to wane.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 6pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l7 level1 lfo17; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">When readers got to an article-level page, they seemed to be there to view the text. Overall, participants' eyes fixated on the story or other text elements before the accompanying image.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 2"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 95.4pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=127> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Advertisement<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 342pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=456> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 6pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l8 level1 lfo18; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Performance depends on placement.</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 6pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l8 level1 lfo18; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Observation: Ads that blend into the look and feel of the page --especially text ads -- draw more eyes</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 6pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l8 level1 lfo18; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Size matters; "half-page" ads perform well.</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 6pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l8 level1 lfo18; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Ads inset within article text are seen more than</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia"> <SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">most other ads</SPAN><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 6pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l8 level1 lfo18; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Mouseover-expand ads were viewed more than other</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia"> <SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">banner ads.</SPAN><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 6pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l8 level1 lfo18; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Static ads vs. animated ads revealed mix results.</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 6pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l8 level1 lfo18; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Ads closer to the top left part of the page are</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia"> <SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">generally seen before ads elsewhere.</SPAN><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 6pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l8 level1 lfo18; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Small pop-ups are quickly viewed, then closed or</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia"> <SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">hidden.</SPAN><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 3"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 95.4pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=127> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Multi-media<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 342pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=456> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 6pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l8 level1 lfo18; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">There is a marginally significant difference in how test subjects correctly recalled story information that was presented in text vs. using multimedia. When asked to recall information about names and places, participants who received information in text were more likely to answer questions correctly.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 6pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l8 level1 lfo18; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">However, information about a process or procedure that was unfamiliar to them was more correctly recalled when participants received it in a multimedia graphic format.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 6pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l8 level1 lfo18; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Users who received information in text form seemed to have better recall of specific factual information.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 6pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l8 level1 lfo18; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">There was no significant difference between men and women when it came to recall of information presented in text or multimedia format.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 4"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 95.4pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=127> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Homepage<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 342pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=456> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 6pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l12 level1 lfo19; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Readers are first drawn to the flag/logo and your top headlines, especially when they are located in the upper left of your page, so you may want to place important content in these areas. You might use other elements such as blurbs to override this instinct if there is some other content that you wish your readers to see before all else. Also remember that large headlines tend to attract more eye fixations sooner than some other page elements.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 6pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l12 level1 lfo19; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Understand that the first few words in a homepage headline are crucial in engaging the largest number of users. Also note that unusual initial words and words in all capital letters may influence how many eyes fixate on a particular headline.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 6pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l12 level1 lfo19; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Users will give you a minimum of five chances to engage them with headlines. Excellent headline writing in this environment can make a difference.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 5"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 95.4pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=127> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Headline <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 342pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=456> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 2.5pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: 2.5pt; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l12 level1 lfo19; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Smaller headlines integrated with blurb text resulted in participants scrolling further down the page.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 2.5pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: 2.5pt; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l12 level1 lfo19; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">"Hot" words can catch the eye of skimmers. (such as the word &#8220;FCUK&#8221;)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 2.5pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: 2.5pt; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l12 level1 lfo19; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">There seems to be a "dip" in reading the full length</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia"> <SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">of titles at the bottom of the first screen (and subsequent screens)</SPAN> <SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">on small-headline pages.</SPAN><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 2.5pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: 2.5pt; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l12 level1 lfo19; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Large headlines may make it easy to read a homepage</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia"> <SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">(perhaps "too easy", they will miss other information).</SPAN><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 6"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 95.4pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=127> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Font size <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 342pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=456> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 2.5pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: 2.5pt; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l27 level1 lfo20; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Smaller font size results in a little more careful viewing of the page.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 2.5pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: 2.5pt; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l27 level1 lfo20; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Disparity in font size seems to make a difference between scanning and reading behaviour.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 7; mso-yfti-lastrow: yes"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 95.4pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=127> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Navigation<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 342pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=456> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 2.5pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: 2.5pt; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l27 level1 lfo20; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">On homepages, top navigation captures more views than left or right navigation.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 2.5pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: 2.5pt; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l27 level1 lfo20; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">At the article level, left navigation is viewed most frequently.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 2.5pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: 2.5pt; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l27 level1 lfo20; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">People didn't spend much time looking at<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 2.5pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: 2.5pt; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l27 level1 lfo20; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">navigation on our homepages.</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 6pt 0cm 2.5pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: 2.5pt; mso-para-margin-left: 36.0pt; mso-list: l27 level1 lfo20; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Navigation gets used most on compact homepages.</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 24.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 24.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Although the intended use was of a newspaper website, most of the guideline can be used on internet shopping site since it correspond to a research by </SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Karvonen </SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">(2003), where she found trustworthiness of web sites has following patterns</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 24.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <TABLE class=MsoTableGrid style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; BORDER-TOP: medium none; MARGIN: auto auto auto 23.4pt; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; WIDTH: 369pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: medium none; BORDER-COLLAPSE: collapse; mso-padding-alt: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-insideh: .5pt solid windowtext; mso-border-insidev: .5pt solid windowtext; mso-yfti-tbllook: 480" cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 width=492 border=1> <TBODY> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 0"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #336677; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 369pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=492 colSpan=2> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: center 179.1pt"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; COLOR: white; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Fig 5 Patten of trustworthiness<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 1"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #cbca94; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 162pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=216> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 24.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Trustworthy:<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #cbca94; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 207pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=276> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 24.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Untrustworthy:</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 2"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 162pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=216> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 24.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Text-based<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 207pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=276> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 24.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Image-based<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 3"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 162pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=216> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 24.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Empty space as structural element<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 207pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=276> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 24.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Empty space as background or &#8220;undefined&#8221; space<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 4"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 162pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=216> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 24.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Strict grouping, Visual density<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 207pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=276> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 24.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Grouping seemed random<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 5"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 162pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=216> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 24.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Formal language<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 207pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=276> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 24.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Informal language<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 6"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 162pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=216> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 24.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Structured and linear upper part<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 207pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=276> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 24.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Unstructured and non-linear upper part<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 7; mso-yfti-lastrow: yes"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 162pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=216> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 24.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Use of real photos<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 207pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=276> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 24.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Use of cartoons/animations<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 24.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">The two studies clearly show similar patterns on how layout and elements on a site relate to creating pleasure in reading/viewing and also provide that more viewing means the more chance that the site will be trusted. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <DIV style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; PADDING-RIGHT: 0cm; BORDER-TOP: medium none; PADDING-LEFT: 0cm; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-bottom-alt: solid windowtext .75pt"> <P class=MsoBodyText style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; PADDING-RIGHT: 0cm; BORDER-TOP: medium none; PADDING-LEFT: 0cm; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: medium none; mso-padding-alt: 0cm 0cm 0cm 0cm; mso-border-bottom-alt: solid windowtext .75pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt; COLOR: #333399; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">5 Preliminary research - </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt; COLOR: #333399; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">An eBay experiment (</SPAN><st1:country-region><st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt; COLOR: #333399; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">UK</SPAN></st1:place></st1:country-region><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt; COLOR: #333399; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">) and informal discussion with its users (</SPAN><st1:country-region><st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt; COLOR: #333399; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">UK</SPAN></st1:place></st1:country-region><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt; COLOR: #333399; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">, </SPAN><st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt; COLOR: #333399; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">Hong Kong</SPAN></st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt; COLOR: #333399; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">) <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></DIV> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">This experiment consists </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">of </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">two parts, both are conducted informally but the validity should still remain as they are both conducted under a &#8220;real life&#8221; situation.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN>Part one of this experiment involved the researcher actually selling two identical items on <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">eBay </SPAN></I>(</SPAN><st1:country-region><st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">UK</SPAN></st1:place></st1:country-region><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">).<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN>This opportunity has came by chance as the researcher received identical gifts and the other reason for choosing eBay is that not only does it have a 99% market share but it also implies a more personal (C2C) selling feature where the need for trust is even more of a concern and trust is higher to gain. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Part One <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Methods</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> - </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">The researcher used two types of description method in the description field for the two items. While both sales offer full details of the specification, </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">the specification on item</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"> </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">B </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">are simply described in a &#8220;block&#8221; of text</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">, where item A </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">are placed in a table format and use</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">d</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> selected ti</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">t</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">le </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">as well as</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> font sizes using the guideline</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">s </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">given by the </SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Eyetrack III</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">(2003) research, </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">such as the title NOT bolded (as </SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Eyetrack III</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">(2003) indicated, a smaller headline will force the viewer to scroll down the page</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"> hence reading the content in more detail</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"> </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">and certain areas also have different fonts to highlight a &#8216;feature area&#8217; (where it describes positive point of the item) and the bad points somehow blend in to the text to conceal it to a certain degree. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">The objective of this action is to attract viewer to stay viewing at those positive areas and hopefully it will create a better impression and liking of the second item.</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Issues</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"> - In order to attract viewing and fairness for both items, both offer pictures of the item and were place</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">d</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"> under the 5-day listing </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">at</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"> a reasonable starting price.</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"> The two items were placed at a different times (two weeks apart from each other) to stop any comparison between both items. The two auctions are conducted under the user agreement given by eBay and both items were sold and sent in a formal matter as in a real situation, the winner of both bids are invited to a post-purchase discussion with the researcher.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;</SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Following is a screen capture of </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">the two items. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><?xml:namespace prefix = v ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:vml" /><v:shapetype id=_x0000_t75 coordsize="21600,21600" o:spt="75" o:preferrelative="t" path="m@4@5l@4@11@9@11@9@5xe" filled="f" stroked="f"><v:stroke joinstyle="miter"></v:stroke><v:formulas><v:f eqn="if lineDrawn pixelLineWidth 0"></v:f><v:f eqn="sum @0 1 0"></v:f><v:f eqn="sum 0 0 @1"></v:f><v:f eqn="prod @2 1 2"></v:f><v:f eqn="prod @3 21600 pixelWidth"></v:f><v:f eqn="prod @3 21600 pixelHeight"></v:f><v:f eqn="sum @0 0 1"></v:f><v:f eqn="prod @6 1 2"></v:f><v:f eqn="prod @7 21600 pixelWidth"></v:f><v:f eqn="sum @8 21600 0"></v:f><v:f eqn="prod @7 21600 pixelHeight"></v:f><v:f eqn="sum @10 21600 0"></v:f></v:formulas><v:path o:extrusionok="f" gradientshapeok="t" o:connecttype="rect"></v:path><o:lock v:ext="edit" aspectratio="t"></o:lock></v:shapetype><v:shape id=_x0000_i1026 style="WIDTH: 4in; HEIGHT: 197.25pt" type="#_x0000_t75"><v:imagedata src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\ALEXWO~1\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtml1\01\clip_image002.png" o:title=""></v:imagedata></v:shape></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Fig.6 Screen capture of item A</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> <v:shape id=_x0000_i1027 style="WIDTH: 289.5pt; HEIGHT: 199.5pt" type="#_x0000_t75"><v:imagedata src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\ALEXWO~1\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtml1\01\clip_image004.png" o:title=""></v:imagedata></v:shape></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Fig. 7 Screen capture of item B<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Result</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> - As mentioned the main idea of this research is to understand whether there is affect on viewer desire to place a bid. As expected, item A was sold at a much higher price than item B after much contact from prospective bidders, a huge amount of bids and viewers for item A.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN>Bidders were more interested and asked more &#8216;detailed&#8217; questions such as <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;Does the camera have any scratches on it&#8221; </I>and <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;Does it come with original packaging&#8221;.</I> Although this small experiment does not signify any major discovery it does prove that humans do tend to trust more beautiful things when it is in a more personal matter meaning humans must trust more beautiful things.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Part two</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> &#8211; Informal interview on how people feel on trust and aesthetic. </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Introduction - The method in part two involved collecting data in the form of responses on their perceptions from selling on eBay, aesthetic and culture. Due to the time scale and the problem of distance the data collection is mainly sourced through <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">MSN </SPAN></I>instant messaging. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Ethics</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> &#8211; Although this part of the research is done informally, ethics still need to be considered. </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">According to a published research guide by <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Oxford Brooks University</SPAN></I> (2003), when Human Participants are involved in research, codes of practice should be followed.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN>The following is a list of codes which are related to this research.</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <UL style="MARGIN-TOP: 0cm" type=disc> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l16 level1 lfo24"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt">No research should cause harm, and preferably it should benefit participants<o:p></o:p></SPAN></LI></UL> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 18pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <UL style="MARGIN-TOP: 0cm" type=disc> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l16 level1 lfo24"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt">Participants should be free from coercion of any kind and should not be pressured to participate in a study<o:p></o:p></SPAN></LI></UL> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 18pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <UL style="MARGIN-TOP: 0cm" type=disc> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l16 level1 lfo24"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt">Participants in a research study have the right to give their informed consent before participating<o:p></o:p></SPAN></LI></UL> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 18pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <UL style="MARGIN-TOP: 0cm" type=disc> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l16 level1 lfo24"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt">Potential participants normally have the right to receive clearly communicated information from the researcher in advance<o:p></o:p></SPAN></LI></UL> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 18pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <UL style="MARGIN-TOP: 0cm" type=disc> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l16 level1 lfo24"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt">Participants' confidentiality and anonymity should be maintained<o:p></o:p></SPAN></LI></UL> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 18pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <UL style="MARGIN-TOP: 0cm" type=disc> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l16 level1 lfo24"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt">Researchers have a duty to disseminate their research findings to all appropriate parties<o:p></o:p></SPAN></LI></UL> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; tab-stops: 24.0pt" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">All participants will be informed on the nature, purpose and objectives of this research and no participants will be forced to take part. This research will occur at a place and time that both participants and researcher have agreed will provide an adequate amount of confidentiality and cause a minimum amount of inconvenience.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN>Research findings and reports will be made available to appropriate parties with participants&#8217; identities concealed.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: red; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Research Approaches<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;</SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: red; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">In normal circumstances, this type of research involving responses from participants, grounded theory would be the ideal approach to use where it is especially relevant and helpful for analysing responses to statements, but in this case the idea is not to start from a theory but to get views from samples by engaging conversations on a particular topic (i.e. eBay), this research will be done in a formal primary research manner. Therefore, the method of informal interview is best approach. </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">The samples are chosen through the experiment in part one as well as other </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">samples from UK <SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;</SPAN>and Hong Kong where they will be interviewed, using both MSN and face to face discussions.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">However, in order to gain relevant information, the questions and centre of discussion will focus on trust and aesthetic, hence the starting question will be &#8220;How do you know if you can trust the seller?&#8221; and for the <SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;</SPAN>buyers above it would be more personal by asking &#8220;Why do you trust me?&#8221;.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Result and Analysis <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Trust - With the people that are interviewed in the UK there are mix views, some prefer to buy from an individual and some prefer to buy from eBay Shops, but one thing is certain is that they always check rating of the seller, the number shown next the user name, although the level of checking varies, i.e. Some pay close detail to all previous comments whereas some just looking at the ratings as one interviewee mentioned:<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">&#8220;I would prefer to buy from a seller that has high rating and I check all the feedbacks that he has received.&#8221;<o:p></o:p></SPAN></I></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">In certain aspects this matches </SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: blue">Hofstede</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB> </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">(1990) culture index where </SPAN><st1:country-region><st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">UK</SPAN></st1:place></st1:country-region><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"> was given a high IDV of 89, meaning each individual are equal and will be judged based on their past performance. New sellers would be given chances but the trust in them seems related to how the description is presented.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN>This will be discussed later. Results of the interviews in </SPAN><st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">Hong Kong</SPAN></st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"> show a different picture.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN>History of the seller does not seem to matter; this is because the transactions normally take place face to face. (Meaning they meet up and exchange, this is possible because HK is only a city that is smaller then </SPAN><st1:City><st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">London</SPAN></st1:place></st1:City><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">) and they prefer it that way as they reluctant to accept or receive online payment or overseas purchase as one interviewee said:<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">&#8220;What the point paying for shipping when we can just meet up at a MTR station&#8221; </SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">(MTR is HK&#8217;s underground train service)<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">Unfortunately, this undermines the whole purpose of this research because there is no distant trust needed to be built. However, when asked about e-commerce sites it shows that they would rather buy from local shopping site that accepts local currency and they would buy from those sites if the prices are cheaper than that of the high street or if the product is difficult to find. The shipping cost does not seem to be factor as most sites offer free or very cheap shipping in HK (or cash on collection).<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">Aesthetic - Aesthetics seem to have a bigger effect than once previously thought, especially in the </SPAN><st1:country-region><st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">UK</SPAN></st1:place></st1:country-region><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">, for example, the use of photos as one interviewee said:<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">&#8220;I only buy items that come with a photo&#8221;<o:p></o:p></SPAN></I></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">And the &#8216;type&#8217; of photo also seems to plays a major role as well, as another interviewee mentioned:<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">&#8220;If the seller is new, than I would much rather see a photo of the product proving he does have it. But if the seller is established or has high rating, than it doesn&#8217;t matter, the (official) photo of the product is ok&#8221;<o:p></o:p></SPAN></I></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">In general, viewers do prefer description in a better, clearer format, as one responded noted:<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">&#8220;I like it when there is detail available, better looking description shows that the seller is more professional&#8221;<o:p></o:p></SPAN></I></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">To conclude, t</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">he author of this report has </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">compiled a checklist using </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">guidelines given by </SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Eyetrack III</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">(2003)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">, </SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Karvonen </SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">(2003)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"> and </SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: blue">Hofstede</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB> (1990)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"> where it</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"> is divided </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">into a different group of </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">factors</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">. </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;</SPAN>This checklist is generated</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"> mainly</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"> for the</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"> purpose of the</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"> primary research that will be conducted </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">later, </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">meaning it&#8217;s created in relation to Chinese culture. However, it could easily be adapted for a different culture. </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <DIV align=center> <TABLE class=MsoTable3DFx2 style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; BORDER-TOP: medium none; BACKGROUND: white; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; BORDER-BOTTOM: medium none; BORDER-COLLAPSE: collapse; mso-padding-alt: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-border-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-insideh: 1.5pt double windowtext; mso-border-insidev: 1.5pt double windowtext; mso-yfti-tbllook: 480" cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 border=1> <TBODY> <TR style="HEIGHT: 24.2pt; mso-yfti-irow: -1"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1.5pt double; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: windowtext 1.5pt double; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #336677; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1.5pt double; WIDTH: 426.1pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1.5pt double; HEIGHT: 24.2pt" width=568 colSpan=2> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; TEXT-ALIGN: center; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; mso-yfti-cnfc: 5" align=center><SPAN><STRONG>Fig. 8 Check list on building a aesthetic website that facilitate Hong Kong/Chinese culture<o:p></o:p></STRONG></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 0"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: gray 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #3b7387; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1.5pt double; WIDTH: 211.95pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: white 1pt solid; mso-border-left-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-top-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-bottom-alt: solid white .75pt; mso-border-right-alt: solid gray .75pt" vAlign=top width=283> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; mso-yfti-cnfc: 68"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: white; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Factor <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1.5pt double; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #3b7387; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 214.15pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1.5pt double; mso-border-left-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-top-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt" vAlign=top width=286> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; mso-yfti-cnfc: 72"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: white; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Description <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 1"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: gray 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1.5pt double; WIDTH: 211.95pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1.5pt double; mso-border-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-top-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-right-alt: solid gray .75pt" vAlign=top width=283> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-yfti-cnfc: 4"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Local identifier<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1.5pt double; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 214.15pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1.5pt double; mso-border-left-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-top-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt" vAlign=top width=286> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-yfti-cnfc: 8"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Icon and objects that reassemble Chinese culture <o:p></o:p></SPAN></I></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 2"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: gray 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1.5pt double; WIDTH: 211.95pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: white 1pt solid; mso-border-left-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid gray .75pt; mso-border-bottom-alt: solid white .75pt; mso-border-right-alt: solid gray .75pt" vAlign=top width=283> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-yfti-cnfc: 68"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Navigation</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">,</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"> </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Forma</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">t,</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"> </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Grouping, </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Amount of space</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"> </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">and </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">length</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"> of</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"> paragraph</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"> (details of product)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1.5pt double; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 214.15pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1.5pt double; mso-border-left-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-top-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt" vAlign=top width=286> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-yfti-cnfc: 72"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Navigation needs to pass usability test. Empty space need to use as element Grouping of product need to be strict with details available. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></I></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 3"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: gray 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1.5pt double; WIDTH: 211.95pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1.5pt double; mso-border-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-top-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-right-alt: solid gray .75pt" vAlign=top width=283> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-yfti-cnfc: 4"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">"Hot" words and<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Language content</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1.5pt double; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 214.15pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1.5pt double; mso-border-left-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-top-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt" vAlign=top width=286> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-yfti-cnfc: 8"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Words that will certainly attract viewer attention and it needs to be in a more interpersonal friendly language <o:p></o:p></SPAN></I></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 4"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: gray 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1.5pt double; WIDTH: 211.95pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: white 1pt solid; mso-border-left-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid gray .75pt; mso-border-bottom-alt: solid white .75pt; mso-border-right-alt: solid gray .75pt" vAlign=top width=283> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-yfti-cnfc: 68"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Font, size and </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">c</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">olour<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1.5pt double; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 214.15pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: white 1pt solid; mso-border-left-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid gray .75pt; mso-border-bottom-alt: solid white .75pt; mso-border-right-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt" vAlign=top width=286> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none; mso-yfti-cnfc: 72"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Maximize information by using coding of colour, typography sound etc.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></I></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none; mso-yfti-cnfc: 72"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></I></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 5"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: gray 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1.5pt double; WIDTH: 211.95pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1.5pt double; mso-border-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-top-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-right-alt: solid gray .75pt" vAlign=top width=283> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-yfti-cnfc: 4"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">English counterpart<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1.5pt double; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 214.15pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1.5pt double; mso-border-left-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-top-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt" vAlign=top width=286> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-yfti-cnfc: 8"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">It will give a better impression<o:p></o:p></SPAN></I></P></TD></TR> <TR style="HEIGHT: 29.25pt; mso-yfti-irow: 6"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: gray 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1.5pt double; WIDTH: 211.95pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; HEIGHT: 29.25pt; mso-border-left-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid gray .75pt; mso-border-bottom-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-right-alt: solid gray .75pt" vAlign=top width=283> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-yfti-cnfc: 68"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Use of real photos</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1.5pt double; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 214.15pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: white 1pt solid; HEIGHT: 29.25pt; mso-border-left-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid gray .75pt; mso-border-bottom-alt: solid white .75pt; mso-border-right-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt" vAlign=top width=286> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-yfti-cnfc: 72"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Types and size of photo needs to be considered.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></I></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 7"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1.5pt double; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1.5pt double; WIDTH: 211.95pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1.5pt double; mso-border-top-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt" vAlign=top width=283> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-yfti-cnfc: 4"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Advertisement (link to external?)<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1.5pt double; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 214.15pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1.5pt double; mso-border-left-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-top-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt" vAlign=top width=286> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-yfti-cnfc: 8"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">It would give a better impression <SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;</SPAN>assurance<o:p></o:p></SPAN></I></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 8; mso-yfti-lastrow: yes"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1.5pt double; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1.5pt double; WIDTH: 211.95pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1.5pt double; mso-border-top-alt: solid gray .75pt" vAlign=top width=283> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-yfti-cnfc: 68"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Support/ feedback </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">and </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Security indication</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1.5pt double; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 214.15pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1.5pt double; mso-border-left-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid gray .75pt" vAlign=top width=286> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-yfti-cnfc: 72"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Need to shows an interpersonal relation in dealing with the support. Although this culture is willing to give out information, information security needs to be available.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></I></P></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></DIV> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Garamond; LETTER-SPACING: -0.1pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: EN-GB; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><BR style="PAGE-BREAK-BEFORE: always" clear=all></SPAN> <DIV style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; PADDING-RIGHT: 0cm; BORDER-TOP: medium none; PADDING-LEFT: 0cm; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-bottom-alt: solid windowtext .75pt"> <P class=MsoBodyText style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; PADDING-RIGHT: 0cm; BORDER-TOP: medium none; PADDING-LEFT: 0cm; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: medium none; mso-padding-alt: 0cm 0cm 0cm 0cm; mso-border-bottom-alt: solid windowtext .75pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt; COLOR: #333399; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">6</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt; COLOR: #333399; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">. Primary Research - Comparative study<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></DIV> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">6.1 Positivist and Phenomenologist<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">There are two research paradigms - positivistic and the phenomenological, according to <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Finn</SPAN></I> (2000), the positivist believes that the world should be able to explain phenomena in terms of what causes the behaviour, seeing reality as being objective, and in naturalism; his aim is to discover facts and their relationship to the world. This approach is dependant on measurements, it uses the scientific method and experimentation to attempt to distinguish natural laws through direct manipulation and observation.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN>This means that research is progressed by checking facts against the initial theory, then modifying the theory to better predict reality. One extreme view of positivism is that the world can be understood well enough such that it can be predicted and controlled.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">Phenomenology on the other hand is attempt to understand and describe phenomena exactly as they appear in an individual's consciousness; to get at the interrelationship between life and world, says <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Phillipson</SPAN></I> (1972), i.e. See and interpret things from individual&#8217;s perspective, focusing on social processes and how individuals shape and give meaning to the social world, instead of studying theories of the social world. Phenomenology&#8217;s aim is to rediscover experiences before cultural filters have affected the subject&#8217;s understanding in a subjective and humanistic way.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><st1:City><st1:place><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">Henderson</SPAN></I></st1:place></st1:City><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"> (1990) listed the characteristics of each paradigm:<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt">Positivist<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <UL style="MARGIN-TOP: 0cm" type=disc> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l9 level1 lfo22"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt">Assumes an external world determining behaviour<o:p></o:p></SPAN></LI> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l9 level1 lfo22"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt">Strives for explanation, prediction and control, and isolating them<o:p></o:p></SPAN></LI> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l9 level1 lfo22"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt">Mechanistic process for explaining social behaviour <o:p></o:p></SPAN></LI> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l9 level1 lfo22"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt">Researcher is objective and value-free<o:p></o:p></SPAN></LI> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l9 level1 lfo22"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt">Truth has to be confirmed with empirical evidence<o:p></o:p></SPAN></LI></UL> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt">Phenomenologist<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <UL style="MARGIN-TOP: 0cm" type=disc> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l24 level1 lfo23"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt">Social reality is multiple, divergent and interrelated<o:p></o:p></SPAN></LI> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l24 level1 lfo23"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt">Analysis from the actor&#8217;s own perspective<o:p></o:p></SPAN></LI> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l24 level1 lfo23"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt">Human behaviour is how people define their own world <o:p></o:p></SPAN></LI> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l24 level1 lfo23"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt">Reality is the meaning attributed to experience and is not the same for everyone<o:p></o:p></SPAN></LI></UL> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 18pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">The two paradigms are seen as two extremes of continuum, but in reality research is carried out using methods from both paradigms as <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Gephart</SPAN></I>(1999) pointed out: <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;The positivist focus on experimental and quantitative methods used to test and verify hypotheses have been superseded or complemented to some extent by an interest in using qualitative methods to gather broader information outside of readily measured variables.&#8221;<o:p></o:p></I></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></I></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">To summarise, a positivist is someone who tries to understand the world by causes and effects and a phenomenologist will explain the world from one&#8217;s point of view. </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><o:p><SPAN style="TEXT-DECORATION: none">&nbsp;</SPAN></o:p></SPAN></U></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">Comparative research methods<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><o:p><SPAN style="TEXT-DECORATION: none">&nbsp;</SPAN></o:p></SPAN></U></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">&#8220;Comparative research methods have long been used in cross-cultural studies to identify, analyse and explain similarities and differences across societies&#8221;</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"> </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">-</SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">Hantrais</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"> (1996).<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN>This method is widely used in social science research; it ensures a high degree of validity while at the same time gives a reasonable control of key variables. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">6.2 Methods<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Although it is difficult to prove that an aesthetic site with culture factor is trustworthy, it is possible to show that a trustworthy site is aesthetic and contain aesthetic factors to a certain degree. By using the checklist as a </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">tool </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">and benchmark on two known trusted sites, </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">this research is </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">use to identify if this is correct and how each site </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">facilitates Chinese culture</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> and builds trust. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <TABLE class=MsoTable3DFx2 style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; BORDER-TOP: medium none; BACKGROUND: white; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; WIDTH: 374.4pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: medium none; BORDER-COLLAPSE: collapse; mso-padding-alt: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-border-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-insideh: 1.5pt double windowtext; mso-border-insidev: 1.5pt double windowtext; mso-yfti-tbllook: 480" cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 width=499 border=1> <TBODY> <TR style="HEIGHT: 24.2pt; mso-yfti-irow: -1"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1.5pt double; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: windowtext 1.5pt double; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #336677; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1.5pt double; WIDTH: 374.4pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1.5pt double; HEIGHT: 24.2pt" width=499 colSpan=2> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; LINE-HEIGHT: normal; TEXT-ALIGN: center; mso-yfti-cnfc: 5" align=center><SPAN><STRONG>Check list on building a aesthetic website that facilitate Hong Kong/Chinese culture<o:p></o:p></STRONG></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 0"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: gray 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #3b7387; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1.5pt double; WIDTH: 149.4pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: white 1pt solid; mso-border-left-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-top-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-bottom-alt: solid white .75pt; mso-border-right-alt: solid gray .75pt" vAlign=top width=199> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; LINE-HEIGHT: normal; mso-yfti-cnfc: 68"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: white; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Factor <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1.5pt double; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #3b7387; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 225pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1.5pt double; mso-border-left-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-top-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt" vAlign=top width=300> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; LINE-HEIGHT: normal; mso-yfti-cnfc: 72"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: white; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Description <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 1"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: gray 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1.5pt double; WIDTH: 149.4pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1.5pt double; mso-border-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-top-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-right-alt: solid gray .75pt" vAlign=top width=199> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; LINE-HEIGHT: normal; mso-yfti-cnfc: 4"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Local identifier<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1.5pt double; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 225pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1.5pt double; mso-border-left-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-top-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt" vAlign=top width=300> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; LINE-HEIGHT: normal; mso-yfti-cnfc: 8"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Icon and objects that reassemble Chinese culture <o:p></o:p></SPAN></I></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 2"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1.5pt double; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1.5pt double; WIDTH: 149.4pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1.5pt double; mso-border-top-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt" vAlign=top width=199> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; LINE-HEIGHT: normal; mso-yfti-cnfc: 68"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Navigation</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">,</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"> </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Forma</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">t,</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"> </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Grouping, </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Amount of space</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"> </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">and </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">length</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"> of</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"> paragraph</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"> (details of product)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1.5pt double; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 225pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1.5pt double; mso-border-left-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-top-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt" vAlign=top width=300> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; LINE-HEIGHT: normal; mso-yfti-cnfc: 72"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Navigation needs to pass usability test. Empty space need to use as element Grouping of product need to be strict with details available. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></I></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 3"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: gray 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1.5pt double; WIDTH: 149.4pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1.5pt double; mso-border-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-top-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-right-alt: solid gray .75pt" vAlign=top width=199> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; LINE-HEIGHT: normal; mso-yfti-cnfc: 4"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">"Hot" words and<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Language content</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1.5pt double; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 225pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1.5pt double; mso-border-left-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-top-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt" vAlign=top width=300> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; LINE-HEIGHT: normal; mso-yfti-cnfc: 8"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Words that will certainly attract viewer attention and it needs to be in a more interpersonal friendly language <o:p></o:p></SPAN></I></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 4"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: gray 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1.5pt double; WIDTH: 149.4pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: white 1pt solid; mso-border-left-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid gray .75pt; mso-border-bottom-alt: solid white .75pt; mso-border-right-alt: solid gray .75pt" vAlign=top width=199> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; LINE-HEIGHT: normal; mso-yfti-cnfc: 68"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Font, size and </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">c</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">olour<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1.5pt double; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 225pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: white 1pt solid; mso-border-left-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid gray .75pt; mso-border-bottom-alt: solid white .75pt; mso-border-right-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt" vAlign=top width=300> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none; mso-yfti-cnfc: 72"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Maximize information by using coding of colour, typography sound etc.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></I></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none; mso-yfti-cnfc: 72"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></I></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 5"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: gray 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1.5pt double; WIDTH: 149.4pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1.5pt double; mso-border-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-top-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-right-alt: solid gray .75pt" vAlign=top width=199> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; LINE-HEIGHT: normal; mso-yfti-cnfc: 4"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">English counterpart<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1.5pt double; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 225pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1.5pt double; mso-border-left-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-top-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt" vAlign=top width=300> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; LINE-HEIGHT: normal; mso-yfti-cnfc: 8"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">It will give a better impression<o:p></o:p></SPAN></I></P></TD></TR> <TR style="HEIGHT: 29.25pt; mso-yfti-irow: 6"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1.5pt double; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1.5pt double; WIDTH: 149.4pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1.5pt double; HEIGHT: 29.25pt; mso-border-top-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt" vAlign=top width=199> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; LINE-HEIGHT: normal; mso-yfti-cnfc: 68"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Use of real photos</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1.5pt double; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 225pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1.5pt double; HEIGHT: 29.25pt; mso-border-left-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-top-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt" vAlign=top width=300> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; LINE-HEIGHT: normal; mso-yfti-cnfc: 72"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Types and size of photo needs to be considered.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></I></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 7; mso-yfti-lastrow: yes"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1.5pt double; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1.5pt double; WIDTH: 149.4pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1.5pt double; mso-border-top-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt" vAlign=top width=199> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; LINE-HEIGHT: normal; mso-yfti-cnfc: 4"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Advertisement (link to external?)<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1.5pt double; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 225pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1.5pt double; mso-border-left-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-top-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt" vAlign=top width=300> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; LINE-HEIGHT: normal; mso-yfti-cnfc: 8"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">It would give a better impression<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN>assurance<o:p></o:p></SPAN></I></P></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; LINE-HEIGHT: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; LINE-HEIGHT: normal"><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p><SPAN style="TEXT-DECORATION: none">&nbsp;</SPAN></o:p></SPAN></U></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; LINE-HEIGHT: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: blue; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">6.3 Research result and analysis<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; LINE-HEIGHT: normal; mso-list: none; mso-list-ins: 'Robin Perry' 20041121T1233"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">The checklist in the previous section is used as a tool to compare two trusted internet sites; seven elements of each site will be evaluated where they are comprises of aesthetics and culture factors, each element will be study and analysis meaning it would be possible to identified reasons of each sites implementation. Following is profiles of the two sites.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <TABLE class=MsoTable3DFx2 style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; BORDER-TOP: medium none; BACKGROUND: white; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; WIDTH: 425.95pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: medium none; BORDER-COLLAPSE: collapse; mso-padding-alt: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-border-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-insideh: 1.5pt double windowtext; mso-border-insidev: 1.5pt double windowtext; mso-yfti-tbllook: 480" cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 width=568 border=1> <TBODY> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: -1"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: gray 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: windowtext 1.5pt double; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #3b7387; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1.5pt double; WIDTH: 425.95pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1.5pt double; mso-border-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-right-alt: solid gray .75pt" vAlign=top width=568> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; LINE-HEIGHT: normal; mso-yfti-cnfc: 5"><SPAN><STRONG>Fig. 9 Company Profile &#8211; </STRONG></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: white; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><A href="http://www.layoyo.com/"><SPAN style="COLOR: white; TEXT-DECORATION: none; text-underline: none">http://www.layoyo.com</SPAN></A></SPAN><B><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></B></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 0"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: gray 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1.5pt double; WIDTH: 425.95pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: white 1pt solid; mso-border-left-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-top-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-bottom-alt: solid white .75pt; mso-border-right-alt: solid gray .75pt" vAlign=top width=568> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; LINE-HEIGHT: normal; mso-yfti-cnfc: 68"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial">Established on </SPAN><st1:date Year="1999" Day="28" Month="6"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial">28th June, 1999</SPAN></st1:date><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial">, at present, </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: blue; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial">LAYOYO.com</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial"> (formerly DVDshelf.com) has become the largest Internet online retailer of Chinese Entertainment products in the world</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial"> where they </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial">have a large selection of Chinese and foreign titles with clearly categorized to facilitate movie, books and music lover ease to search.</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; LINE-HEIGHT: normal; mso-yfti-cnfc: 68"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial">Layoyo.com has organizes its product in to videos, music CD, books etc. it then further divided each category into new, pre-order, discount products etc.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 1; mso-yfti-lastrow: yes"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: gray 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1.5pt double; WIDTH: 425.95pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1.5pt double; mso-border-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-top-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-right-alt: solid gray .75pt" vAlign=top width=568> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; LINE-HEIGHT: normal; mso-yfti-cnfc: 4"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial"><v:shape id=_x0000_i1028 style="WIDTH: 415.5pt; HEIGHT: 41.25pt" type="#_x0000_t75"><v:imagedata src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\ALEXWO~1\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtml1\01\clip_image006.png" o:title=""></v:imagedata></v:shape></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; LINE-HEIGHT: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <TABLE class=MsoTable3DFx2 style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; BORDER-TOP: medium none; BACKGROUND: white; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; WIDTH: 425.95pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: medium none; BORDER-COLLAPSE: collapse; mso-padding-alt: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-border-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-insideh: 1.5pt double windowtext; mso-border-insidev: 1.5pt double windowtext; mso-yfti-tbllook: 480" cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 width=568 border=1> <TBODY> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: -1"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: gray 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: windowtext 1.5pt double; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #3b7387; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1.5pt double; WIDTH: 425.95pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1.5pt double; mso-border-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-right-alt: solid gray .75pt" vAlign=top width=568> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; LINE-HEIGHT: normal; mso-yfti-cnfc: 5"><SPAN><STRONG>Fig. 10 Company Profile - </STRONG><A href="http://www.yesasia.com/"><SPAN style="COLOR: white; TEXT-DECORATION: none; text-underline: none">http://www.y</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: white; TEXT-DECORATION: none; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; text-underline: none">esasia.com</SPAN></A></SPAN><B><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></U></B></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 0"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: gray 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1.5pt double; WIDTH: 425.95pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: white 1pt solid; mso-border-left-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-top-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-bottom-alt: solid white .75pt; mso-border-right-alt: solid gray .75pt" vAlign=top width=568> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; LINE-HEIGHT: normal; mso-yfti-cnfc: 68"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Since its launch in 1998, <SPAN style="COLOR: blue">YesAsia.com</SPAN> has become the leading Internet source for Asian entertainment products</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">, and the company stated that </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: #2a2a2a; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: ????">it aims to</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: #2a2a2a; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: ????"> facilitate information access and order placement for its worldwide customers, </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: blue; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: ????">YesAsia.com</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: #2a2a2a; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: ????"> has tailored its website for different cultures through the localization of languages, content, design, and product offerings.</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: #2a2a2a; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: ????"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; LINE-HEIGHT: normal; mso-yfti-cnfc: 68"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: #2a2a2a; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: ????">Yesasia.com </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial">has organizes its product in to videos, music CD, books etc, each category are then divided by country of production, it is then further divide into top, new, discount product etc.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 1; mso-yfti-lastrow: yes"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: gray 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1.5pt double; WIDTH: 425.95pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1.5pt double; mso-border-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-top-alt: double windowtext 1.5pt; mso-border-right-alt: solid gray .75pt" vAlign=top width=568> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; LINE-HEIGHT: normal; mso-yfti-cnfc: 4"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial"><v:shape id=_x0000_i1029 style="WIDTH: 414.75pt; HEIGHT: 48pt" type="#_x0000_t75"><v:imagedata src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\ALEXWO~1\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtml1\01\clip_image008.png" o:title=""></v:imagedata></v:shape></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: black; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: black; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial">Both sites can be expected to be trustworthy as they both have a large customer base and they were in the top ranking provided by respectful companies such as </SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial">alexa.com</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial"> and <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">AC </SPAN></I></SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">Nielsen//NetRatings' Surv</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">ey</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">. </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: black; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial">Comments from a semi-professional web designer and the site <SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Amazon.co.uk</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black"> will also be used as a benchmark as it remains as one of the most popular and trusted sites. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p><SPAN style="TEXT-DECORATION: none">&nbsp;</SPAN></o:p></SPAN></U></P><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Garamond; LETTER-SPACING: -0.1pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-GB; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><BR style="PAGE-BREAK-BEFORE: always" clear=all></SPAN></U> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">A. </SPAN></U><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Local identifier and Location</SPAN></U><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> of the identifier<o:p></o:p></SPAN></U></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p><SPAN style="TEXT-DECORATION: none">&nbsp;</SPAN></o:p></SPAN></U></P> <TABLE class=MsoTableGrid style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; BORDER-TOP: medium none; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; WIDTH: 411.15pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: medium none; BORDER-COLLAPSE: collapse; mso-padding-alt: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-insideh: .5pt solid windowtext; mso-border-insidev: .5pt solid windowtext; mso-yfti-tbllook: 480" cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 width=548 border=1> <TBODY> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 0"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #3b7387; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 411.15pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=548 colSpan=3> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; COLOR: white; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><STRONG>Fig.11 Identifier used <o:p></o:p></STRONG></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 1"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #3b7387; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 86.4pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=115> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: white; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #3b7387; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 178.9pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=239> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><B style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: white; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Yesasia.com<o:p></o:p></SPAN></B></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #3b7387; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 145.85pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=194> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><B style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: white; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Layayo.com<o:p></o:p></SPAN></B></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 2"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 86.4pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=115> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Company Icon<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 178.9pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=239> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><v:shape id=_x0000_i1030 style="WIDTH: 100.5pt; HEIGHT: 44.25pt" type="#_x0000_t75" o:ole=""><v:imagedata src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\ALEXWO~1\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtml1\01\clip_image010.png" o:title=""></v:imagedata></v:shape></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 145.85pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=194> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><v:shape id=_x0000_i1031 style="WIDTH: 111.75pt; HEIGHT: 55.5pt" type="#_x0000_t75" o:ole=""><v:imagedata src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\ALEXWO~1\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtml1\01\clip_image012.png" o:title=""></v:imagedata></v:shape></SPAN><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></U></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 3"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 86.4pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=115> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Langue Switching<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 178.9pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=239> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><v:shape id=_x0000_i1032 style="WIDTH: 150pt; HEIGHT: 21.75pt" type="#_x0000_t75" o:ole=""><v:imagedata src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\ALEXWO~1\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtml1\01\clip_image014.png" o:title=""></v:imagedata></v:shape></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 145.85pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=194> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><v:shape id=_x0000_i1033 style="WIDTH: 55.5pt; HEIGHT: 19.5pt" type="#_x0000_t75" o:ole=""><v:imagedata src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\ALEXWO~1\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtml1\01\clip_image016.png" o:title=""></v:imagedata></v:shape></SPAN><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></U></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 4"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 86.4pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=115> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Area Identifier<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 178.9pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=239> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><v:shape id=_x0000_i1034 style="WIDTH: 45pt; HEIGHT: 19.5pt" type="#_x0000_t75" o:ole=""><v:imagedata src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\ALEXWO~1\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtml1\01\clip_image018.png" o:title=""></v:imagedata></v:shape>, <v:shape id=_x0000_i1035 style="WIDTH: 48.75pt; HEIGHT: 18.75pt" type="#_x0000_t75" o:ole=""><v:imagedata src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\ALEXWO~1\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtml1\01\clip_image020.png" o:title=""></v:imagedata></v:shape></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 145.85pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=194> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p><SPAN style="TEXT-DECORATION: none">&nbsp;</SPAN></o:p></SPAN></U></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 5; mso-yfti-lastrow: yes"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 86.4pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=115> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Currency Switch <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 178.9pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=239> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><v:shape id=_x0000_i1036 style="WIDTH: 168pt; HEIGHT: 27.75pt" type="#_x0000_t75" o:ole=""><v:imagedata src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\ALEXWO~1\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtml1\01\clip_image022.png" o:title=""></v:imagedata></v:shape></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 145.85pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=194> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><v:shape id=_x0000_i1037 style="WIDTH: 135pt; HEIGHT: 25.5pt" type="#_x0000_t75" o:ole=""><v:imagedata src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\ALEXWO~1\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtml1\01\clip_image024.png" o:title=""></v:imagedata></v:shape></SPAN><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></U></P></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p><SPAN style="TEXT-DECORATION: none">&nbsp;</SPAN></o:p></SPAN></U></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Findings and Analysis<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Upper left can be seen as the anchor of a site in most web design guideline, as show in <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">webstyleguide </SPAN></I>and <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">eyetrack III</SPAN></I>. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">The guideline from <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Eyetrack III</SPAN></I><SPAN style="COLOR: blue"> </SPAN>has shown that viewer will first notice the left hand corner and it should be used to identify company&#8217;s identity (e.g. name and first impression) which both site have done whereas <SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Amazon.co.uk</SPAN> has also used this corner as an opportunity for introducing new sections. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Yesasia.com</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> has also chosen the flag of the country (e.g. Hong Kong SAR flag) as the Local identifier where it has appeared at the upper middle of each page. It also supports different language and different Local currency. At different language product&#8217;s main page, it shows culture related objects and related icons as well as cooperate Language syntax in the graphic to enforce the understanding, such as &#8220;Chinese Entertainment Products&#8221; and &#8220;Korean Entertainment&#8221; (part IV of the Table above), whereas <SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Layoyo.com</SPAN> had the icon</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial"> w</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">here it means traditional Chinese (part III)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial"> and the company logo also has two Chinese characters saying the name of the site</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">The support of different currency also seems to be an important factor since both sites emphasise the ability to give a quotation price in different currency, this is consistent to the informal interview in the previous section showing that people tend to see the acceptance of their currency as one of the deciding factor for purchase and that they would prefer to buy from a seller that accepts their local currency and therefore giving the impression that the product is sold locally. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">On the aesthetic front, apart from using local identifiers, the most obvious way user have immediate reorganization is to show local related contents, <SPAN style="COLOR: blue">yesasia.com</SPAN> has done that showing only the same language in the homepage (i.e. Only Chinese products in the Chinese homepage, Japanese product and Japanese Homepage). <SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Layoyo.com </SPAN>did not use separate language pages as it did not organise products that way.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">B. </SPAN></U><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Navigation</SPAN></U><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">,</SPAN></U><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"> </SPAN></U><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Forma</SPAN></U><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">t,</SPAN></U><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"> </SPAN></U><U><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Grouping, </SPAN></U><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Amount of space</SPAN></U><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"> </SPAN></U><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">and </SPAN></U><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">length</SPAN></U><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"> of</SPAN></U><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"> paragraph<o:p></o:p></SPAN></U></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><o:p><SPAN style="TEXT-DECORATION: none">&nbsp;</SPAN></o:p></SPAN></U></P> <TABLE class=MsoTableGrid style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; BORDER-TOP: medium none; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; BORDER-BOTTOM: medium none; BORDER-COLLAPSE: collapse; mso-padding-alt: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-table-layout-alt: fixed; mso-border-insideh: .5pt solid windowtext; mso-border-insidev: .5pt solid windowtext; mso-yfti-tbllook: 480" cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 border=1> <TBODY> <TR style="HEIGHT: 16.55pt; mso-yfti-irow: 0"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 473.4pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; HEIGHT: 16.55pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=631 colSpan=3> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Fig. 11 Navigation<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 1"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 68.4pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=91> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><o:p><SPAN style="TEXT-DECORATION: none">&nbsp;</SPAN></o:p></SPAN></U></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 81pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=108> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><o:p><SPAN style="TEXT-DECORATION: none">&nbsp;</SPAN></o:p></SPAN></U></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 324pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=432> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><o:p><SPAN style="TEXT-DECORATION: none">&nbsp;</SPAN></o:p></SPAN></U></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 2"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 68.4pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=91> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Yesasia.com<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 81pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=108> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Navigation Top<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 324pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=432> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><v:shape id=_x0000_i1038 style="WIDTH: 255.75pt; HEIGHT: 31.5pt" type="#_x0000_t75" o:ole=""><v:imagedata src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\ALEXWO~1\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtml1\01\clip_image026.png" o:title=""></v:imagedata></v:shape><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 3"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 68.4pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=91> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 81pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=108> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Navigation<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Left and Right<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 324pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=432> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><v:shape id=_x0000_i1039 style="WIDTH: 36.75pt; HEIGHT: 83.25pt" type="#_x0000_t75" o:ole=""><v:imagedata src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\ALEXWO~1\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtml1\01\clip_image028.png" o:title=""></v:imagedata></v:shape><SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;</SPAN><v:shape id=_x0000_i1040 style="WIDTH: 36pt; HEIGHT: 83.25pt" type="#_x0000_t75" o:ole=""> <v:imagedata src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\ALEXWO~1\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtml1\01\clip_image030.png" o:title=""></v:imagedata></v:shape></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 4"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 68.4pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=91> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 81pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=108> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Main Body<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 324pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=432> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><v:shape id=_x0000_i1041 style="WIDTH: 102.75pt; HEIGHT: 83.25pt" type="#_x0000_t75" o:ole=""><v:imagedata src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\ALEXWO~1\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtml1\01\clip_image032.png" o:title=""></v:imagedata></v:shape></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 5"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 68.4pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=91> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Layoyo.com<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 81pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=108> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Navigation Top<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 324pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=432> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><v:shape id=_x0000_i1042 style="WIDTH: 255.75pt; HEIGHT: 30pt" type="#_x0000_t75" o:ole=""><v:imagedata src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\ALEXWO~1\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtml1\01\clip_image034.png" o:title=""></v:imagedata></v:shape></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 6"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 68.4pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=91> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 81pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=108> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Navigation<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Left<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 324pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=432> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><v:shape id=_x0000_i1043 style="WIDTH: 31.5pt; HEIGHT: 89.25pt" type="#_x0000_t75" o:ole=""><v:imagedata src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\ALEXWO~1\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtml1\01\clip_image036.png" o:title=""></v:imagedata></v:shape><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 7; mso-yfti-lastrow: yes"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 68.4pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=91> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 81pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=108> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Main Body<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 324pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=432> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><v:shape id=_x0000_i1044 style="WIDTH: 108pt; HEIGHT: 114pt" type="#_x0000_t75" o:ole=""><v:imagedata src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\ALEXWO~1\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtml1\01\clip_image038.png" o:title=""></v:imagedata></v:shape><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Findings and Analysis<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></I></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Arial; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Navigation needs to pass usability test. </SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">Yesasi</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">a.com</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"> has adapted the two menu navigation systems</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> similar to <SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Amazon.co.uk </SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">where the top menu is static it contains links to pages of a different category, it also contains a sub menu that leads to a different subcategory page</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> up to three levels where t</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">he other menus is two dynamic menu blocks on both the left and right side of the page, it offers related information such as similar products and related categories to encourage &#8220;impulse clicking&#8221;.</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> <SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Layoyo.com </SPAN>also uses the top static menu system, but since it only expands to two levels, it has an array of information on the second level. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">Although the Chinese language is difficult to understand for a non-Chinese speaking </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">person </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">there is no doubt they would be aware of</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> the direction on reading traditional Chinese</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"> syntax is first from up to down then left to right as </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">the </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">fig</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">ure below illustrates. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <TABLE class=MsoTableGrid style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; BORDER-TOP: medium none; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; BORDER-BOTTOM: medium none; BORDER-COLLAPSE: collapse; mso-padding-alt: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-insideh: .5pt solid windowtext; mso-border-insidev: .5pt solid windowtext; mso-yfti-tbllook: 480" cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 border=1> <TBODY> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 0"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #3b7387; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; LINE-HEIGHT: normal; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: white; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Fig. 12 Directions of reading in Chinese and English <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="HEIGHT: 205.15pt; mso-yfti-irow: 1; mso-yfti-lastrow: yes"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; HEIGHT: 205.15pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; LINE-HEIGHT: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><v:group id=_x0000_s1026 style="WIDTH: 324pt; HEIGHT: 162pt; mso-position-horizontal-relative: char; mso-position-vertical-relative: line" coordsize="5635,2880" coordorigin="3015,9945" editas="canvas"><o:lock v:ext="edit" aspectratio="t"></o:lock><v:shape id=_x0000_s1027 style="LEFT: 3015px; WIDTH: 5635px; POSITION: absolute; TOP: 9945px; HEIGHT: 2880px" o:preferrelative="f" type="#_x0000_t75"><v:fill o:detectmouseclick="t"></v:fill><v:path o:extrusionok="t" o:connecttype="none"></v:path><o:lock v:ext="edit" text="t"></o:lock></v:shape><v:line id=_x0000_s1028 style="POSITION: absolute" to="3330,12505" from="3328,10105"><v:stroke endarrow="block"></v:stroke></v:line><v:line id=_x0000_s1029 style="POSITION: absolute" to="3955,12505" from="3954,10105"><v:stroke endarrow="block"></v:stroke></v:line><v:line id=_x0000_s1030 style="POSITION: absolute" to="4739,12505" from="4737,10105"><v:stroke endarrow="block"></v:stroke></v:line><v:line id=_x0000_s1031 style="POSITION: absolute" to="8023,10906" from="5832,10905"><v:stroke endarrow="block"></v:stroke></v:line><v:line id=_x0000_s1032 style="POSITION: absolute" to="8023,12186" from="5832,12185"><v:stroke endarrow="block"></v:stroke></v:line><v:line id=_x0000_s1033 style="POSITION: absolute" to="8023,11546" from="5833,11545"><v:stroke endarrow="block"></v:stroke></v:line><?xml:namespace prefix = w ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:word" /><w:wrap type="none"></w:wrap><w:anchorlock></w:anchorlock></v:group></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; TEXT-INDENT: 34.3pt; LINE-HEIGHT: normal; mso-char-indent-count: 3.5"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Chinese<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN><SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</SPAN>English<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; LINE-HEIGHT: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><SPAN style="mso-tab-count: 1">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">The traditional Chinese reading direction is still used for conventional transfer medium such as books and certain newspapers (hence why an English person always mentions how Chinese read back to front), but the influence of English did played a major role, one piece of evidence is how </SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">The </SPAN></I><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">China Press</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"> in America</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"> d</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">iscard</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">ed</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"> Up-Down for Left-Right Reading -</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"> <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">New York Times</SPAN></I> (</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">March 25, 2002</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">). </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">Chinese </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">websites</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"> are the other major indication</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> of such influence</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"> as no Chinese web site uses the up-down reading format</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> (e.g. yeasia and layayo)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">, </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">this is partly because of the problem in implementation but it is also because the users of the Internet would have already adapted the left-right style (i.e. effects of &#8220;compucation&#8221;). <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Arial; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Grouping of products needs to be strict with details available</SPAN></I><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Arial; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">,</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> this does not only mean the appearance but the organization of the database although it seems obvious that many sites fail to achieve this idea as many other sites produced errors such as duplicate listing, difficult search etc. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Grouping</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"> and the a</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">mount of space</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> used shows</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"> the biggest difference of the two sites.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN>At the home page, <SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Yesasia.com</SPAN> has chosen to focus on one product as the spotlight product for each category where it also completes with a medium sized photo and introductory paragraph. <SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Layoyo.com</SPAN> uses a different format where it shows up to five products with small sizes photos and is not complete with an introductory paragraph.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN>T</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">his corresponds with Hofstede&#8217;s culture index, Hong Kong has a relatively low UA of 29 compare to the world average of 64, in a certain aspect the appearance of both sites is consistent with </SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">Marcus &amp; Gould</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"> (2000)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> description of low UA culture where they noted &#8220;</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">Complexity with maximal content and choices</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">&#8221; and encourage wandering, on the two sites, even though not many products are shown on the front page i.e. the &#8216;star&#8217; product, it does give an appearance that both sites offer a large amount choice and range with many links that allow the viewer to explore.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Arial; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Empty space need to use as an element</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">. This is agreed by the semi-professional where he believed that although both sites gave an impression of professionalism and quality (providing what is needed with efficiency) <SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Yesasia.com </SPAN>has achieved better because of how the &#8216;blank&#8217; spaces are used. He believes that empty spaces should be avoided as much as possible and one of the best way to use space is by having it as a separation or boundary. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">C. </SPAN></U><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">"Hot" words and Language</SPAN></U><U><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"> content<o:p></o:p></SPAN></U></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Using </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Hofstede&#8217;s culture index, </SPAN><st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Hong Kong</SPAN></st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> as high LTD of 96, explanation by </SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">Marcus &amp; Gould</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"> (2000) of high LTD culture is.</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 6pt 53.85pt; TEXT-INDENT: -17.85pt; tab-stops: list 54.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: 0cm; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd; mso-para-margin-left: 53.85pt; mso-list: l14 level1 lfo15; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Content focused on practice and practical value. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 6pt 53.85pt; TEXT-INDENT: -17.85pt; tab-stops: list 54.0pt; mso-para-margin-top: 0cm; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd; mso-para-margin-left: 53.85pt; mso-list: l14 level1 lfo15; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Courier New'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Courier New'"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">o<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Relationships as a source of information and credibility.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P style="TEXT-JUSTIFY: inter-ideograph; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; TEXT-ALIGN: justify"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Arial; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></I></P> <P style="TEXT-JUSTIFY: inter-ideograph; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; TEXT-ALIGN: justify"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">&#8220;Focused on practice and practical value&#8221; - I</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Garamond">n the case of internet shopping, practical values would almost certainly mean the prices and value of product, hence it would be same to assume that the viewer will get attracted by adverts that indicated values, </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Garamond; mso-fareast-font-family: ????">referring back to the &#8216;FCUK&#8217; example where it will grip viewer&#8217;s attention, the content i.e. &#8216;hot&#8217; words for shopping sites in HK would be to focus on values and not words that attract attention in the same way as &#8216;FCUK&#8217;.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P style="TEXT-JUSTIFY: inter-ideograph; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; TEXT-ALIGN: justify"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Garamond; mso-fareast-font-family: ????">Both yesasia.com and layayao.com has recognizes this. There spotlight has indeed been focus on values<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <TABLE class=MsoTableGrid style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; BORDER-TOP: medium none; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; BORDER-BOTTOM: medium none; BORDER-COLLAPSE: collapse; mso-padding-alt: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-insideh: .5pt solid windowtext; mso-border-insidev: .5pt solid windowtext; mso-yfti-tbllook: 480" cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 border=1> <TBODY> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 0"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #3b7387; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 426.1pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=568 colSpan=3> <P style="TEXT-JUSTIFY: inter-ideograph; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; TEXT-ALIGN: justify"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: white; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????">Fig. 13 Hot Words<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 1"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 138.85pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=185> <P style="TEXT-JUSTIFY: inter-ideograph; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; TEXT-ALIGN: justify"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 139.2pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=186> <P style="TEXT-JUSTIFY: inter-ideograph; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; TEXT-ALIGN: justify"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????">Yesasia.com<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 148.05pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=197> <P style="TEXT-JUSTIFY: inter-ideograph; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; TEXT-ALIGN: justify"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????">Layayo.com <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 2; mso-yfti-lastrow: yes"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 138.85pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=185> <P style="TEXT-JUSTIFY: inter-ideograph; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; TEXT-ALIGN: justify"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????">Advertisment/Spotlight<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 139.2pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=186> <P style="TEXT-JUSTIFY: inter-ideograph; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; TEXT-ALIGN: justify"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><v:shape id=_x0000_i1045 style="WIDTH: 80.25pt; HEIGHT: 82.5pt" type="#_x0000_t75" o:ole=""><v:imagedata src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\ALEXWO~1\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtml1\01\clip_image041.png" o:title=""></v:imagedata></v:shape></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 148.05pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=197> <P style="TEXT-JUSTIFY: inter-ideograph; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; TEXT-ALIGN: justify"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><v:shape id=_x0000_i1046 style="WIDTH: 137.25pt; HEIGHT: 46.5pt" type="#_x0000_t75" o:ole=""><v:imagedata src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\ALEXWO~1\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtml1\01\clip_image043.png" o:title=""></v:imagedata></v:shape></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Arial; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></I></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Arial; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">The need to be in a more interpersonal and friendly language -</SPAN></I><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> </SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????">Cantonese is one of the main sub-divisions of Chinese language spoken in Hong Kong and it is a strange language where it has different syntax for speaking and writing, as </SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">cantonese.ca</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"> identified that </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????">&#8220;</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: black; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US">Cantonese (or Yue) is one of the five major Chinese languages. These are often called "dialects", but in actuality their differences are great enough to consider them separate languages&#8230;&#8230;.</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">As a colloquial language, Cantonese is full of slang and non-standard usage. The language of youth is rapidly evolving, and new slang and trendy expressions are constantly emerging.</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: black; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US">&#8221; </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <TABLE class=MsoTableGrid style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; BORDER-TOP: medium none; MARGIN: auto 6.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; BORDER-BOTTOM: medium none; BORDER-COLLAPSE: collapse; mso-padding-alt: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-insideh: .5pt solid windowtext; mso-border-insidev: .5pt solid windowtext; mso-yfti-tbllook: 480; mso-table-lspace: 9.0pt; mso-table-rspace: 9.0pt; mso-table-anchor-vertical: paragraph; mso-table-anchor-horizontal: margin; mso-table-left: left; mso-table-top: 15.15pt" cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 align=left border=1> <TBODY> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 0"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #3b7387; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 313.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=418 colSpan=3> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: normal; mso-element: frame; mso-element-wrap: around; mso-element-anchor-vertical: paragraph; mso-element-anchor-horizontal: margin; mso-element-top: 15.15pt; mso-element-frame-hspace: 9.0pt; mso-height-rule: exactly"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: white; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Fig. 14 Example of difference in Chinese<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 1"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 104.5pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=139> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: normal; mso-element: frame; mso-element-wrap: around; mso-element-anchor-vertical: paragraph; mso-element-anchor-horizontal: margin; mso-element-top: 15.15pt; mso-element-frame-hspace: 9.0pt; mso-height-rule: exactly"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">English <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 104.5pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=139> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: normal; mso-element: frame; mso-element-wrap: around; mso-element-anchor-vertical: paragraph; mso-element-anchor-horizontal: margin; mso-element-top: 15.15pt; mso-element-frame-hspace: 9.0pt; mso-height-rule: exactly"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Formal <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 104.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=139> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: normal; mso-element: frame; mso-element-wrap: around; mso-element-anchor-vertical: paragraph; mso-element-anchor-horizontal: margin; mso-element-top: 15.15pt; mso-element-frame-hspace: 9.0pt; mso-height-rule: exactly"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Cantonese speaking<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 2"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 104.5pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=139> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-element: frame; mso-element-wrap: around; mso-element-anchor-vertical: paragraph; mso-element-anchor-horizontal: margin; mso-element-top: 15.15pt; mso-element-frame-hspace: 9.0pt; mso-height-rule: exactly"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: black; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Thank you<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 104.5pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=139> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-element: frame; mso-element-wrap: around; mso-element-anchor-vertical: paragraph; mso-element-anchor-horizontal: margin; mso-element-top: 15.15pt; mso-element-frame-hspace: 9.0pt; mso-height-rule: exactly"><U><SPAN class=MsoHyperlink><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; BACKGROUND: #fefdde; COLOR: black; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: ????; TEXT-DECORATION: none; mso-bidi-font-family: ????; text-underline: none; mso-ascii-font-family: Verdana; mso-hansi-font-family: Verdana">??</SPAN></SPAN><SPAN class=MsoHyperlink><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; BACKGROUND: #fefdde; COLOR: black; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; TEXT-DECORATION: none; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-bidi-font-family: ????; text-underline: none">,</SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: black; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></U></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 104.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=139> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-element: frame; mso-element-wrap: around; mso-element-anchor-vertical: paragraph; mso-element-anchor-horizontal: margin; mso-element-top: 15.15pt; mso-element-frame-hspace: 9.0pt; mso-height-rule: exactly"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; BACKGROUND: #fefdde; COLOR: black; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: ????; mso-bidi-font-family: ????; mso-ascii-font-family: Verdana; mso-hansi-font-family: Verdana">??</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: black; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 3; mso-yfti-lastrow: yes"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 104.5pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=139> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-element: frame; mso-element-wrap: around; mso-element-anchor-vertical: paragraph; mso-element-anchor-horizontal: margin; mso-element-top: 15.15pt; mso-element-frame-hspace: 9.0pt; mso-height-rule: exactly"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: black; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Have you eaten yet?<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 104.5pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=139> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-element: frame; mso-element-wrap: around; mso-element-anchor-vertical: paragraph; mso-element-anchor-horizontal: margin; mso-element-top: 15.15pt; mso-element-frame-hspace: 9.0pt; mso-height-rule: exactly"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: ???; mso-bidi-font-family: ???; mso-ascii-font-family: Verdana; mso-hansi-font-family: Verdana">?????</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial">?</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: black; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 104.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=139> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-element: frame; mso-element-wrap: around; mso-element-anchor-vertical: paragraph; mso-element-anchor-horizontal: margin; mso-element-top: 15.15pt; mso-element-frame-hspace: 9.0pt; mso-height-rule: exactly"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; BACKGROUND: #fefdde; COLOR: black; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: ????; mso-bidi-font-family: ????; mso-ascii-font-family: Verdana; mso-hansi-font-family: Verdana">???????</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: black; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN class=MsoHyperlink><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; BACKGROUND: #fefdde; COLOR: black; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; TEXT-DECORATION: none; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-bidi-font-family: ????; text-underline: none"><o:p><U>&nbsp;</U></o:p></SPAN></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN class=MsoHyperlink><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; BACKGROUND: #fefdde; COLOR: black; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; TEXT-DECORATION: none; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-bidi-font-family: ????; text-underline: none"><o:p><U>&nbsp;</U></o:p></SPAN></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN class=MsoHyperlink><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; BACKGROUND: #fefdde; COLOR: black; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; TEXT-DECORATION: none; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-bidi-font-family: ????; text-underline: none"><o:p><U>&nbsp;</U></o:p></SPAN></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN class=MsoHyperlink><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; BACKGROUND: #fefdde; COLOR: black; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; TEXT-DECORATION: none; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-bidi-font-family: ????; text-underline: none"><o:p><U>&nbsp;</U></o:p></SPAN></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><U><SPAN class=MsoHyperlink><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; BACKGROUND: #fefdde; COLOR: black; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; TEXT-DECORATION: none; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-bidi-font-family: ????; text-underline: none">In </SPAN></SPAN><st1:place><SPAN class=MsoHyperlink><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; BACKGROUND: #fefdde; COLOR: black; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; TEXT-DECORATION: none; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-bidi-font-family: ????; text-underline: none">Hong Kong</SPAN></SPAN></st1:place><SPAN class=MsoHyperlink><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; BACKGROUND: #fefdde; COLOR: black; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; TEXT-DECORATION: none; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-bidi-font-family: ????; text-underline: none">, academic and other document writing such as essays and letters uses the formal writing style is used whereas </SPAN></SPAN></U><SPAN lang=EN-GB><A href="http://www.cantonese.ca/sounds/cp003.wav"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; BACKGROUND: #fefdde; COLOR: black; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: ????; TEXT-DECORATION: none; mso-bidi-font-family: ????; text-underline: none; mso-ascii-font-family: Garamond; mso-hansi-font-family: Garamond">??</SPAN></A> and </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="BACKGROUND: #fefdde; FONT-FAMILY: ????; mso-ascii-font-family: Garamond; mso-hansi-font-family: Garamond">??????</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB> would be considered as inappropriate, even they will have to translate it in to Cantonese when they have to present it. However, the iGeneration in Hong Kong does not seem to use formal language on their regular communication such as e-mails and instant messaging, this phenomena is somewhat similar to the &#8216;text language&#8217; use by teenagers in the UK such as &#8216;c u l8r&#8217; (meaning see you later!). The main idea here is not to understand all the differences between Chinese and Cantonese but that Cantonese is seen as more friendly and personal and is preferred by younger generations and since because the web is mainly dominated by this age group, this dialect should be use because it would build on <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Marcus &amp; Gould</SPAN></I> (2000)&#8217;s description - </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Relationships as a source of information and credibility</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB>. </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: black; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">D. </SPAN></U><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Font, size and </SPAN></U><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">c</SPAN></U><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">olour<o:p></o:p></SPAN></U></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Before moving on to the comparing the two site, it is important to review guidelines on articles and font sizes given by <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">EyetrackIII</SPAN></I> (2003) <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Articles, <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l7 level1 lfo17; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">When readers encountered a story with an introductory paragraph, 95percent of them read all or part of the introductory paragraph.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l7 level1 lfo17; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Those who spent time carefully reading the introductory paragraph of a story on article-level pages typically spent little time with the full story.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l7 level1 lfo17; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Those who gave the intro paragraphs little time usually spent even less time with the story text.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l7 level1 lfo17; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Shorter paragraphs encouraged testers to continue reading.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l7 level1 lfo17; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Story text in one-column format was read more extensively than story text presented in a "newspaper-like" multiple-column format.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l7 level1 lfo17; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">However, subheads increased reading for "skimmers" and for those whose attention in a story was beginning to wane.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l7 level1 lfo17; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">When readers got to an article-level page, they seemed to be there to view the text. Overall, participants' eyes fixated on the story or other text elements before the accompanying image.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Font Sizes,<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l27 level1 lfo20; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Smaller font size results in a little more careful viewing of the page.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l27 level1 lfo20; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Symbol; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Symbol; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">&#183;<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Disparity in font size seems to make a difference between scanning and reading behaviour.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">To conclude, the optimum way to present a description is by using a small font that is not too different to the title and keep it short and brief in <SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;</SPAN>one-column which both site have done.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <TABLE class=MsoTableGrid style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; BORDER-TOP: medium none; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; BORDER-BOTTOM: medium none; BORDER-COLLAPSE: collapse; mso-padding-alt: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-insideh: .5pt solid windowtext; mso-border-insidev: .5pt solid windowtext; mso-yfti-tbllook: 480" cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 border=1> <TBODY> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 0"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #3b7387; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 401.4pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=535 colSpan=2> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: white; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Fig 15. The Format of the main body<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 1"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 96.25pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=128> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Layoyo.com<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 305.15pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=407> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><v:shape id=_x0000_i1047 style="WIDTH: 156pt; HEIGHT: 135.75pt" type="#_x0000_t75" o:ole=""><v:imagedata src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\ALEXWO~1\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtml1\01\clip_image045.png" o:title=""></v:imagedata></v:shape></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 2; mso-yfti-lastrow: yes"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 96.25pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=128> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Yesasia.com<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 305.15pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=407> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><v:shape id=_x0000_i1048 style="WIDTH: 165pt; HEIGHT: 108pt" type="#_x0000_t75" o:ole=""><v:imagedata src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\ALEXWO~1\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtml1\01\clip_image047.png" o:title=""></v:imagedata></v:shape></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Georgia; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><U><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><o:p><SPAN style="TEXT-DECORATION: none">&nbsp;</SPAN></o:p></SPAN></U></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><U><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><o:p><SPAN style="TEXT-DECORATION: none">&nbsp;</SPAN></o:p></SPAN></U></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><U><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">E. </SPAN></U><U><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">English </SPAN></U><U><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">version</SPAN></U><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></U></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Referring back to the discussion of culture migration in the literature review, Hong Kong is one of the places that has been heavily influenced by the Western Culture, as <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Prof. Lee</SPAN></I> (1995) said in a paper regarding the &#8216;Chineseness&#8217; in HK, &#8220;</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">One of the reasons for this marginalization of local culture is, of course, a result of British colonialist culture. For generations Western culture has been supreme and immediate, and Chinese culture seen only as the old and the distant. But another reason has been the assumption that students must be taught "good" literature, "good" culture which has been almost invariably defined as elite Western usually British culture</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">&#8221;. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">This paper was written 1995 hence many might question the handover back to </SPAN><st1:country-region><st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">China</SPAN></st1:place></st1:country-region><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> should reverse this Western influence.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN>However, due to social problems such as political decision making, for example how China blocked a democratic election in Hong Kong <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">BBC news</SPAN></I> (</SPAN><SPAN class=ds1><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 8.5pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Monday, 26 April, 2004</SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">) and how tourists from China caused problems in HK because of the difference in culture (for example, spitting on the street in China are seen as normal but not in HK), the attitude against Chinese Culture has in fact been increasing.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">This is supported by the author&#8217;s experience and internet forum comments.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN>Further obvious evidence includes there are more people learning English privately than ever before and the entertainment world, such as popular actors and actresses are almost certainly the third or forth generation of Chinese from aboard i.e. ABC (American Born Chinese) and BBC (British Born Chinese) or at least have a certain connection to the west. To conclude, the English version of the contents might not have practical use in selling to local market, but it would create a more professional impression, and image are an important factor in gaining trust.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P><U><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><BR style="PAGE-BREAK-BEFORE: always" clear=all></SPAN></U> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><U><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">F. </SPAN></U><U><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Use of real photos</SPAN></U><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">This guideline has come after the research by </SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Karvonen </SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">(2003), where it identified trustworthy sites tend to use real photos.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN>However, <SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;</SPAN>based on the informal research from the <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">eBay</SPAN></I> experiment, there are different &#8216;definitions&#8217; of real photos, one is where the product is actually filmed (i.e. the packaging and condition of product can be seen), the other one is official photos where most internet shopping site uses as with the two site being inspected here. However, on certain special items yesasia.com would use the product type photos.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <TABLE class=MsoTableGrid style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; BORDER-TOP: medium none; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; BORDER-BOTTOM: medium none; BORDER-COLLAPSE: collapse; mso-padding-alt: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-insideh: .5pt solid windowtext; mso-border-insidev: .5pt solid windowtext; mso-yfti-tbllook: 480" cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 border=1> <TBODY> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 0"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #3b7387; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 418.1pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=557 colSpan=2> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: white; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Fig. 16 Use of Photos<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 1"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #3b7387; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 209.05pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=279> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: white; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Yesasia.com<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #3b7387; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 209.05pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=279> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: white; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Layayo.com<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 2; mso-yfti-lastrow: yes"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 209.05pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=279> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><v:shape id=_x0000_i1049 style="WIDTH: 131.25pt; HEIGHT: 119.25pt" type="#_x0000_t75" o:ole=""><v:imagedata src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\ALEXWO~1\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtml1\01\clip_image049.png" o:title=""></v:imagedata></v:shape></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 209.05pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=279> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><v:shape id=_x0000_i1050 style="WIDTH: 85.5pt; HEIGHT: 105.75pt" type="#_x0000_t75" o:ole=""><v:imagedata src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\ALEXWO~1\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtml1\01\clip_image051.png" o:title=""></v:imagedata></v:shape></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">This use of real product photos was supported by the web-design professional where he believed on special items, such as the t-shirt illustrates (where it comes with the CD), products should be shown and this should be extended to other products where appearance is more important then the contents, such as clothes, jewelries etc.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">G. </SPAN></U><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Advertisement (link to external)</SPAN></U><U><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></U></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">Once again, Hong Kong has a low IDV index of 25, as <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">hofstede</SPAN></I> (2004) mentions &#8220;</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">The low Individualism ranking is manifest in a close and committed member 'group', be that a family, extended family, or extended relationships. Loyalty in a collectivist culture is paramount. A the society fosters strong relationships where everyone takes responsibility for fellow members of their group.&#8221; Meaning a person in </SPAN><st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">Hong Kong</SPAN></st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"> likes to see to be seen in a group i.e. being associated with an already established company would increase the trustworthiness of its sites. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <TABLE class=MsoTableGrid style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; BORDER-TOP: medium none; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; BORDER-BOTTOM: medium none; BORDER-COLLAPSE: collapse; mso-padding-alt: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-insideh: .5pt solid windowtext; mso-border-insidev: .5pt solid windowtext; mso-yfti-tbllook: 480" cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 border=1> <TBODY> <TR style="HEIGHT: 18.1pt; mso-yfti-irow: 0"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #3b7387; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 418.1pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; HEIGHT: 18.1pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=557 colSpan=3> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: white; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Fig. 16 Advertisement <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="HEIGHT: 21.25pt; mso-yfti-irow: 1"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #3b7387; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 139.35pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; HEIGHT: 21.25pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=186> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: white; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #3b7387; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 139.35pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; HEIGHT: 21.25pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=186> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: white; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Yesasia.com<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #3b7387; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 139.4pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; HEIGHT: 21.25pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=186> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: white; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">Layayo.com<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR> <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 2; mso-yfti-lastrow: yes"> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 139.35pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=186> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 139.35pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=186> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><v:shape id=_x0000_i1051 style="WIDTH: 102.75pt; HEIGHT: 118.5pt" type="#_x0000_t75" o:ole=""><v:imagedata src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\ALEXWO~1\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtml1\01\clip_image053.png" o:title=""></v:imagedata></v:shape><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD> <TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; BACKGROUND: #eeeedd; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 139.4pt; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=186> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><v:shape id=_x0000_i1052 style="WIDTH: 124.5pt; HEIGHT: 123.75pt" type="#_x0000_t75" o:ole=""><v:imagedata src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\ALEXWO~1\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtml1\01\clip_image055.png" o:title=""></v:imagedata></v:shape><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">As shown in figure 16, yesasia.com associate with other bigger and more trustworthy companies whereas Layayo.com promote the companies portfolio of web sites. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Garamond; LETTER-SPACING: -0.1pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: EN-GB; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><BR style="PAGE-BREAK-BEFORE: always" clear=all></SPAN> <DIV style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; PADDING-RIGHT: 0cm; BORDER-TOP: medium none; PADDING-LEFT: 0cm; PADDING-BOTTOM: 6pt; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-bottom-alt: solid windowtext .75pt"> <P class=MsoBodyText style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; PADDING-RIGHT: 0cm; BORDER-TOP: medium none; PADDING-LEFT: 0cm; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: medium none; mso-padding-alt: 0cm 0cm 6.0pt 0cm; mso-border-bottom-alt: solid windowtext .75pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt; COLOR: #333399; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">7. </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt; COLOR: #333399; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">Conclusion<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></DIV> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">7.1. Purpose of study restated<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">This study has reviewed the nature of trust in internet shopping, and how it might be affected by culture and aesthetic factors. The literature forms the basis of an experiment on eBay where two identical items were sold with two different presentation formats. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">A checklist completed with guidelines for building a trustworthy site was compiled by combining the literatures in the areas mentioned and previous researches such as <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Eyetrack</SPAN></I></SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"> III </SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">(2003)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">, </SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Karvonen </SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">(2003)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"> and </SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: blue">Hofstede</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB> (1990).</SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">The checklist was used to study two trusted internet shopping site in Hong Kong, by comparing the characteristics of the two sites, it was possible to identify their strategies of gaining trust and whether the two trusted site stratified the points mentioned on the checklist. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">7.2 Summary of main points<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">The literature shows that there are many forms of trust, but in the case of internet shopping, it is whether </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">the customer</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"> (trustor) has enough trust in the company (trustee) to overcome the risk considerations in order to use its services. The nature of internet shopping makes trust extremely difficult to gain as it does not provide personal cues as in &#8216;real&#8217; shopping environment.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">Trust is given by the viewer, and a trusting image is also determined by the viewer&#8217;s perception. These perceptions include the aesthetic of content representation and whether it provides a familiar shopping environment where it includes usability, feasibility and usability. The judgement in perception is influence by viewer&#8217;s cultural influences such as teaching, experiences and other social influence, however the influence changes over time,</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"> </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">the change of influence also includes the migration of different cultures as shown with the </SPAN><st1:country-region><st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">UK</SPAN></st1:place></st1:country-region><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"> example in section 2<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">Both the preliminary research &#8211; the eBay experiment and the primary research have indeed proved that buyers prefer to buy from a &#8220;better looking&#8221; site and culture identifiers such as currency conversion and language location also play an important role, meaning the two studied sites satisfy the checklist and at the same time validate the accuracy of the guideline. Although the checklist was designed purposely for </SPAN><st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">Hong Kong</SPAN></st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"> culture, it can easily be adapted for other uses.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">7.3 Weakness of study<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">Due to the restrictions of time constraints, the unstructured interviews were not conducted on a wider scale and were not analysed in a formal manner. This was a major setback in discovering roles of trust and the influences of trust. Having said this, the informal interview allows causal conversation between researcher and the interviewees which would not occur otherwise.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">The comparative research would have achieved a better result and further validate the checklist if it had included a negative sample (a not trustworthy site). <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoBodyText style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 14pt; tab-stops: 285.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: blue; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">7.4 Suggestion for further research<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 24pt; TEXT-INDENT: -24pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: list 24.0pt; mso-list: l28 level1 lfo29"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Wingdings; mso-fareast-font-family: Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family: Wingdings"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore"><IMG height=12 alt=* src="file:///C:/DOCUME~1/ALEXWO~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image001.gif" width=12><SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">The effects of aesthetic were studied to a certain degree in this dissertation, but a practical and detail framework has not yet been developed. Future research might be able to develop these idea further, identifying detailed aspects such as the combination of colours and position of photographs. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 24pt; TEXT-INDENT: -24pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: list 24.0pt; mso-list: l28 level1 lfo29"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Wingdings; mso-fareast-font-family: Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family: Wingdings"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore"><IMG height=12 alt=* src="file:///C:/DOCUME~1/ALEXWO~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image001.gif" width=12><SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">Despite oppositions from other academics on its usefulness on web design, the author of this dissertation believed <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Hofstede&#8217;s</SPAN></I> study has shown the differences and importance of recognizing different culture. <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Marcus &amp; Gould&#8217;</SPAN></I><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">s </SPAN>study has successfully shown how culture has affected online publication on certain website. However, the study was done in year 2000: the author of this report believes it can be considered as out of date in this information era, and the study is somewhat based on proving the correctness of <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="COLOR: blue">Hofstede&#8217;s </SPAN></I>work. A new study together with the attitude of the &#8216;iGeneration&#8217; as well as the difference in non-standard grouping (as mentioned in section 2) is long over due.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 24pt; TEXT-INDENT: -24pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: list 24.0pt; mso-list: l28 level1 lfo29"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Wingdings; mso-fareast-font-family: Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family: Wingdings"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore"><IMG height=12 alt=* src="file:///C:/DOCUME~1/ALEXWO~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image001.gif" width=12><SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%">As shown in the literature, long-term trust is the goal of any trust gaining process. As a result the factors might effect change during different stages of the transaction, such as whether third party trust affects the trust relationship between the trustor and trustee, i.e. the shipping process. Further research on any aspect of trust will not doubt help accelerate the growth of all sections of e-commerce. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; tab-stops: 24.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: Garamond; LETTER-SPACING: -0.1pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: EN-GB; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><BR style="PAGE-BREAK-BEFORE: always" clear=all></SPAN> <DIV style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; PADDING-RIGHT: 0cm; BORDER-TOP: medium none; PADDING-LEFT: 0cm; PADDING-BOTTOM: 1pt; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; mso-border-bottom-alt: solid windowtext .75pt"> <P class=MsoNormal style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; PADDING-RIGHT: 0cm; BORDER-TOP: medium none; PADDING-LEFT: 0cm; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: medium none; TEXT-ALIGN: left; mso-padding-alt: 0cm 0cm 1.0pt 0cm; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-border-bottom-alt: solid windowtext .75pt" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt; COLOR: #333399; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">8 Bibliography <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P></DIV> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; TEXT-ALIGN: left; tab-stops: 24.0pt" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Bogdan, Robert and Steven J. Taylor. 1975, &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods: A Phenomenological Approach to the Social Sciences.&#8221; </I></SPAN><st1:State><st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB>New York</SPAN></st1:place></st1:State><SPAN lang=EN-GB>: John Wiley, 1975. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; mso-layout-grid-align: none" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Berleant Arnold (2004) &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">Notes for a Cultural Aesthetic</I>&#8221; Available at <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt"><A href="http://www.eki.ee/km/place/pdf-s/KP2_02berleant.pdf"><FONT color=#606420>http://www.eki.ee/km/place/pdf-s/KP2_02berleant.pdf</FONT></A><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Barber Wendy and Badre Albert (1998), &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">Culturability: The Merging of Culture and Usability</I>&#8221; published at </SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB>4th Conference on Human Factors &amp; the Web</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB> available at <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt"><A href="http://www.research.att.com/conf/hfweb/proceedings/barber/">http://www.research.att.com/conf/hfweb/proceedings/barber/</A><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial">BusinessTown.com (2003), <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;The Definition of E-Commerce&#8221;</I> available at <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt"><A href="http://www.businesstown.com/internet/ecomm-definition.asp"><FONT color=#606420>http://www.businesstown.com/internet/ecomm-definition.asp</FONT></A><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><A name=_Toc80504002></A><st1:City><st1:place><SPAN style="mso-bookmark: _Toc80504002"><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Campbell</SPAN></SPAN></st1:place></st1:City><SPAN style="mso-bookmark: _Toc80504002"><SPAN lang=EN-GB>. Beverley, 1996 &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Phenomenology as Research Method</SPAN></I><SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">&#8221; </SPAN>published at </SPAN></SPAN><SPAN style="mso-bookmark: _Toc80504002"></SPAN><A href="http://www.staff.vu.edu.au/syed/alrnnv/papers/bev.html"><SPAN style="mso-bookmark: _Toc80504002"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">http://www.staff.vu.edu.au/syed/alrnnv/papers/bev.html</SPAN></SPAN><SPAN style="mso-bookmark: _Toc80504002"></SPAN></A><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Center for Advance Research In Phenomenology, 2000 &#8220;<A name=1><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">What is<o:p></o:p></I></A></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN style="mso-bookmark: 1"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Phenomenology?</SPAN></I></SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB>&#8221; </SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB>published at </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt"><A href="http://www.phenomenologycenter.org/phenom.htm">http://www.phenomenologycenter.org/phenom.htm</A><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Clark.R(2001)<A name=RTFToC1> <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;Trust in the Context of e-Business</I></A>&#8221; published in the<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"> Internet Law Bulletin 4, 5 (February 2002) 56-59</I> available at<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt"><A href="http://www.anu.edu.au/people/Roger.Clarke/EC/Trust.html#App1">http://www.anu.edu.au/people/Roger.Clarke/EC/Trust.html#App1</A><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><st1:City><st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Chandler</SPAN></st1:place></st1:City><SPAN lang=EN-GB>, Daniel (2001) &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">Semiotics for Beginners</I>&#8221; published at<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; tab-stops: 24.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><A href="http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Documents/S4B/sem01.html"><FONT color=#606420>http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Documents/S4B/sem01.html</FONT></A><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Cheng, Kevin (2004) &#8220;</SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN style="FONT-SIZE: 11.5pt; mso-ansi-language: EN">Culture and Websit</SPAN></I><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN style="mso-ansi-language: EN; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">es: Not Believing in Aaron Marcus's Dimensions of Culture and Global Web Design</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN style="mso-ansi-language: EN; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">&#8221; Published at &#8220;OK/Cancel&#8221; avaliable at<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; mso-ansi-language: EN"><A href="http://www.ok-cancel.com/archives/post/2004/09/culture_and_websites_not_believing_in_aaron_marcuss_dimensions_of_culture_and_global_web_design.html"><FONT color=#606420>http://www.ok-cancel.com/archives/post/2004/09/culture_and_websites_not_believing_in_aaron_marcuss_dimensions_of_culture_and_global_web_design.html</FONT></A><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; mso-ansi-language: EN"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Chong Bessie, Yang Zhilin, Wong Michael (2003)&#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Asymmetrical impact of trustworthiness attributes on trust, perceived value and purchase intention: a conceptual framework for cross-cultural study on consumer perception of online auction</SPAN></I><SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">&#8221; Published at <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Electronic commerce</I></SPAN> available through the ACM Digital Library<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">Cohen, Robin and Kennedy, Paul (2000) <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;Global Sociology</I>&#8221; </SPAN><st1:place><st1:PlaceName><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial">New York</SPAN></st1:PlaceName><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial"> </SPAN><st1:PlaceType><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial">University</SPAN></st1:PlaceType></st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial"> Press</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><st1:City><st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Davis</SPAN></st1:place></st1:City><SPAN lang=EN-GB> Kevin. 1995, &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">The Phenomenology of Research: The Construction of Meaning <o:p></o:p></I></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB><SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;</SPAN>in Composition Research</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB>&#8221; JAC 15.1 (1995) <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Dugdale Julie (2004) &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">Action Sp&#233;cifique : Interculturalit&#233;, usages et conception</I> des NTIC&#8221; Du R&#233;seau Th&#233;matique Pluridisciplinaire STIC 38 : Ergonomie, Usage, Acceptabilit&#233;&#8221; available at </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt"><A href="http://iihm.imag.fr/nigay/ASCULTURE/">http://iihm.imag.fr/nigay/ASCULTURE/</A></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB> <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">Eyetrack III (2004) by </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">Steve Outing and Laura Ruel &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">EyeTrack III &#8211; online news consumer behavior in the age of media&#8221;</I>, a project by of the pointer institute. Availiable at </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><A href="http://www.poynterextra.org/eyetrack2004/index.htm"><FONT color=#606420>http://www.poynterextra.org/eyetrack2004/index.htm</FONT></A></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"> </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana">and </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><A href="http://www.ischool.washington.edu/tabrooks/EyeTracking/20040908_104729_11889.pdf"><FONT color=#606420>http://www.ischool.washington.edu/tabrooks/EyeTracking/20040908_104729_11889.pdf</FONT></A></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: Verdana"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">Fogg, B.J. (2002). &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">Persuasive Technology: Using Computers To Change What We Think and Do</I>&#8221; Published at <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Ubiquity</SPAN>, Vol</I></SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB>ume 3 Issue 44 </SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB>available through the ACM Digital Library</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; mso-layout-grid-align: none" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Fiore Salvatore G. (2003) &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">Supporting Design for Aesthetic Experience</I>&#8221; Available at <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt"><A href="http://www-users.cs.york.ac.uk/~pcw/KM_subs/Sal_Fiore.pdf">http://www-users.cs.york.ac.uk/~pcw/KM_subs/Sal_Fiore.pdf<o:p></o:p></A></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Gephart, Robert. 1999, <SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">&#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">Paradigms and Research Methods</I>&#8221;</SPAN> in <I>Research Methods Forum, Vol. 4 Summer 1999).<o:p></o:p></I></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Global Reach (2004),<SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"> &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">Global Internet Statistics (by Language)- a survey conducted by Global Reach&#8221; available at </I></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt"><A href="http://www.global-reach.biz/globstats/index.php3">http://www.global-reach.biz/globstats/index.php3</A></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; mso-layout-grid-align: none" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">Gottdiener, Mark (2001) &#8220;</SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">New forms of consumption: consumers, culture, and commodification&#8221;</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt"> </SPAN><st1:place><st1:City><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">Lanham</SPAN></st1:City><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">, </SPAN><st1:State><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">MD</SPAN></st1:State></st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt"> : Rowman &amp; Littlefield Publishers , c2000<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; mso-layout-grid-align: none" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; mso-layout-grid-align: none" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB>He Shaoyi (2001) &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">P4 Interplay of Language and Culture in Global E-commerce:<o:p></o:p></I></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB>A Comparison of Five Companies&#8217; Multilingual Websites</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB>&#8221; Published at <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Proceedings of the 19th annual international conference on Computer documentation</SPAN> </I>available through the ACM Digital Library<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; tab-stops: 186.7pt" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Held, David; McGrew, A (2002) &#8220;<CITE><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: Garamond">The Global Transformations Reader: An Introduction to the Globalization Debate</SPAN></CITE>.&#8221; Polity Press, 2003</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial">Hargrave, Sean (2004), &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">The blog busters</SPAN></I><SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">&#8221; published at &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">The Guardian unlimited</I>&#8221; available at <o:p></o:p></SPAN></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><A href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/online/weblogs/story/0,14024,1279463,00.html"><FONT color=#606420>http://www.guardian.co.uk/online/weblogs/story/0,14024,1279463,00.html</FONT></A><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none; mso-pagination: none" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-US style="LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-style: italic; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Hofstede, Geert (2002) &#8220;</SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Dimensions do not exist: A reply to</SPAN></I><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"> </SPAN></I><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">Brendan McSweeney&#8221;</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-US style="mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt"> </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: ????">Published at Human Relations 2002 55:<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">Sage publication<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Jennings Morgan (2000) &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Theory and models for creating engaging and immersive ecommerce Websites</SPAN></I><SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">&#8221; Published at <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">Proceedings of the 2000 ACM SIGCPR conference on Computer personnel research</I></SPAN> available through the ACM Digital Library<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Kim. Dan, Ferrin. Donald , Rao. H (2003) &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">A study of the effect of consumer expectations and satisfaction: the Korean experience</I>&#8221; published at <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Electronic commerce</SPAN></I> available through the ACM Digital Library<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Karvonen Kristiina (2000) &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">The beauty of simplicity</I>&#8221; Published at <SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Proceedings on &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">the</I> <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">2000 conference on Universal Usability</I></SPAN> available through the ACM Digital Library<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Karvonen Kristiina (2003)<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"> &#8220;</I></SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="mso-ansi-language: EN-US">Aesthetic Pleasantness Related to Trusting Behavior</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-US style="mso-ansi-language: EN-US">&#8221;<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Available at </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt"><A href="http://www.cise.ufl.edu/~bbp/aesthetic.ppt"><FONT color=#606420>http://www.cise.ufl.edu/~bbp/aesthetic.ppt</FONT></A><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: green; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Khaslavsky Julie, Shedroff Nathan (1999) &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">Understanding the seductive experience</I>&#8221; Published at <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Communications of the ACM</SPAN>, Volume 42 Issue 5</I> available through the ACM Digital Library<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Kerne Andruid (1998) &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Cultural representation in interface ecosystems: amendments to the ACM/interactions design awards criteria</SPAN></I><SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">&#8221; Published at <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">interactions</I></SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">, Volume 5 Issue 1</I> available through the ACM Digital Library<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; mso-layout-grid-align: none" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Lanford Patricia, H&#252;bscher Roland (2004) &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">Trustworthiness in E-Commerce</I>&#8221;<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB>published at <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Proceedings of the 42nd annual Southeast regional conference</SPAN></I> available through the ACM Digital Library<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; mso-layout-grid-align: none; mso-outline-level: 3" align=left><A name=_Toc80504008><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Linda Hantrais (1996),&#8221;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">Comparative Research Methods</I></SPAN></A><SPAN lang=EN-GB>&#8221; Published at &#8220;<I>Social Research Update</I><SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-style: italic">&#8221;</SPAN> Issue thirteen<SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-style: italic">, the Department of Sociology, </SPAN></SPAN><st1:place><st1:PlaceType><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-style: italic">University</SPAN></st1:PlaceType><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-style: italic"> of </SPAN><st1:PlaceName><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-style: italic">Surrey</SPAN></st1:PlaceName></st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-style: italic"> </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB>available at </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt"><A href="http://www.soc.surrey.ac.uk/sru/SRU13.html">http://www.soc.surrey.ac.uk/sru/SRU13.html</A></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; mso-layout-grid-align: none" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Leath Colin(1996) <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;The Aesthetic Experience&#8221;</I> Available at <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt"><A href="http://experienceart.org/cleath/docs/asexp113.htm">http://experienceart.org/cleath/docs/asexp113.htm</A><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; mso-layout-grid-align: none" align=left><A name=_Toc80504005><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Leon E. Panetta (2002) &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">A Time to Ask &#8216;Who Can We Trust?</I></SPAN></A><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB>&#8221;</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB> published at &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">The Monterey County Herald</I>&#8221;, </SPAN><st1:date Year="2002" Day="10" Month="3"><SPAN lang=EN-GB>March 10, 2002</SPAN></st1:date><SPAN lang=EN-GB> Available at <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; mso-layout-grid-align: none" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt"><A href="http://www.panettainstitute.org/Commentaries/031002.htm">http://www.panettainstitute.org/Commentaries/031002.htm</A><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; mso-layout-grid-align: none" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; mso-layout-grid-align: none" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Lanford Patricia, H&#252;bscher Roland (2004) &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">Trustworthiness in E-Commerce</I>&#8221;<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB>published at <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Proceedings of the 42nd annual Southeast regional conference</SPAN></I> available through the ACM Digital Library<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">Lechner, Frank (2001) &#8220;<SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-style: italic; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">World Culture Theory&#8221; Published at &#8220;The Globalization Website&#8221; available at </SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt"><A href="http://www.emory.edu/SOC/globalization/theories03.html">http://www.emory.edu/SOC/globalization/theories03.html</A><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-FAMILY: Garamond">Lee, <SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Gregory (1995) &#8220;</SPAN></SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-FAMILY: Garamond; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: ????; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">'The Cultural Discourse of Authenticity and "Chineseness" in </SPAN></I><st1:place><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-FAMILY: Garamond; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: ????; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Hong Kong</SPAN></I></st1:place><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-FAMILY: Garamond; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: ????; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"> and Elsewhere: Marginality or Hierarchy?&#8221;</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-FAMILY: Garamond; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-family: ????; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">published at </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-FAMILY: Garamond; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Published in <I>Hong Kong Shue Yan College English Journal</I> 1 (Autumn 1995) available at <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><A href="http://www-scd.univ-lyon3.fr/externe/lee/lee_shueyan.htm"><FONT color=#606420>http://www-scd.univ-lyon3.fr/externe/lee/lee_shueyan.htm</FONT></A><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: black; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial">McGreevey, Sue (2001) <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;Study finds beauty can be its own reward&#8221;<o:p></o:p></I></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB>published at &#8220;EurekAlert!&#8221; available at </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt"><A href="http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2001-11/mgh-sfb110801.php"><FONT color=#606420>http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2001-11/mgh-sfb110801.php</FONT></A><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">McNulty, Jennifer (2004), <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;</I></SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Emphasis on 'culture' in psychology fuels stereotypes, scholar says</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB>&#8221; published at <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;UC </I></SPAN><st1:City><st1:place><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Santa Cruz</SPAN></I></st1:place></st1:City><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB> Currents online</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB>&#8221; available at <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt"><A href="http://currents.ucsc.edu/04-05/07-26/culture.html"><FONT color=#606420>http://currents.ucsc.edu/04-05/07-26/culture.html</FONT></A><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-US style="LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: ????">McSweeney, Brendan (2002) &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">The essentials of scholarship: A reply to Geert Hofstede</SPAN></I><SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">&#8221;</SPAN> <BR>Published at Human Relations 2002 55: 1363-1372, </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">Sage publication<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB>McMahon, J. (1999), &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">Towards a Unified Theory of Beauty</I>&#8221;, Published at <I>Literature and Aesthetics </I>(</SPAN><st1:place><st1:PlaceType><SPAN lang=EN-GB>University</SPAN></st1:PlaceType><SPAN lang=EN-GB> of </SPAN><st1:PlaceName><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Sydney</SPAN></st1:PlaceName></st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB>), 9, pp.7-27.</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; mso-layout-grid-align: none" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Olson, J.S., Zheng, J., Bos, N., Olson, G.M., &amp; Veinott, E. (2002). &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">Trust without Touch: Jumpstarting Long-Distance Trust with Initial Social Activities.&#8221; </I>Published at<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; mso-layout-grid-align: none" align=left><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Proceedings of CHI2002, 141-146. April 20-25</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB>, </SPAN><st1:place><st1:City><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Minneapolis</SPAN></st1:City><SPAN lang=EN-GB>, </SPAN><st1:State><SPAN lang=EN-GB>MN</SPAN></st1:State><SPAN lang=EN-GB>, </SPAN><st1:country-region><SPAN lang=EN-GB>US</SPAN></st1:country-region></st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB>.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; mso-layout-grid-align: none" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Prof. Geert Hofstede, research conducted between (1967-1973) &#8220;Geert Hofstede&#8482; Cultural Dimensions&#8221; available at </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt"><A href="http://www.geert-hofstede.com/index.shtml">http://www.geert-hofstede.com/index.shtml</A><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Phillipson, Michael. (1972), "<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">Phenomenological Philosophy and Sociology.<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN>New Directions in Sociological Inquiry</I>.&#8221; Ed. P. Filmer, M. Phillipson, D. Silverman, and D. Walsh. </SPAN><st1:place><st1:City><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Cambridge</SPAN></st1:City><SPAN lang=EN-GB>, </SPAN><st1:State><SPAN lang=EN-GB>MA</SPAN></st1:State></st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB>: MIT P, 1972. 119-64. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">Professor Haunani-Kay Trask (2004), &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Tourism and the Prostitution of Hawaiian Culture&#8221;</SPAN></I><SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"> published at &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">Globally Speaking</I>&#8221; available at <o:p></o:p></SPAN></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt"><A href="http://www.abc.net.au/global/culture/culture_trask.htm"><FONT color=#606420>http://www.abc.net.au/global/culture/culture_trask.htm</FONT></A><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Pells, Richards (2002), <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;American Culture Goes Global, or Does It?</I>&#8221; published at <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;The chronicle</I>&#8221; available at </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt"><A href="http://chronicle.com/free/v48/i31/31b00701.htm"><FONT color=#606420>http://chronicle.com/free/v48/i31/31b00701.htm</FONT></A></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Rothkop, David(1997), <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;In Praise of Cultural Imperialism? Effects of Globalization on Culture&#8221; </I>published at <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;Global Policy forum&#8221;</I> available at <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt"><A href="http://www.globalpolicy.org/globaliz/cultural/globcult.htm"><FONT color=#606420>http://www.globalpolicy.org/globaliz/cultural/globcult.htm</FONT></A><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; mso-layout-grid-align: none" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Research &amp; Business Development Office, </SPAN><st1:place><st1:PlaceName><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Oxford</SPAN></st1:PlaceName><SPAN lang=EN-GB> </SPAN><st1:PlaceType><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Brooks</SPAN></st1:PlaceType><SPAN lang=EN-GB> </SPAN><st1:PlaceName><SPAN lang=EN-GB>University</SPAN></st1:PlaceName></st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB>(2003) &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">Ethical Standards for Research involving Human Participants</I>&#8221; available at </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt"><A href="http://www.brookes.ac.uk/research/ethics/ethicscode.html">http://www.brookes.ac.uk/research/ethics/ethicscode.html</A></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB> <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; mso-layout-grid-align: none" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; mso-layout-grid-align: none" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Rutter. J (2001), &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">From the Sociology of Trust Towards a Sociology of &#8216;E-trust&#8217;</SPAN></I><SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">&#8221;-</SPAN> Centre for Research on Innovation and Competition<SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"> publications, available at<o:p></o:p></SPAN></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; mso-layout-grid-align: none" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;</SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB><A href="http://les.man.ac.uk/cric/Jason_Rutter/papers/eTrust.pdf"><SPAN style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt">http://les.man.ac.uk/cric/Jason_Rutter/papers/eTrust.pdf</SPAN></A><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; mso-layout-grid-align: none" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">Robertson, Roland. (1992) &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">Globalization: Social Theory and Global Culture&#8221;</I>. </SPAN><st1:City><st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">London</SPAN></st1:place></st1:City><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">: Sage<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; mso-layout-grid-align: none" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; mso-layout-grid-align: none" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Shusterman Richard (1999)<A name=_Toc80504003> &#8220;The <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">End of Aesthetic Experience</I></A>&#8221;<A name=_Toc80504004> Published in: <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism</I>, 55 (1999), 29-41.</A><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; mso-layout-grid-align: none" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=H2 style="TEXT-JUSTIFY: inter-ideograph; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: justify"><A name=_Toc80504006><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-WEIGHT: normal; FONT-SIZE: 12pt; FONT-FAMILY: Garamond; mso-bidi-font-size: 18.0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Soy Sue (1998) &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">The Case Study as a Research Method</I></SPAN></A><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-WEIGHT: normal; FONT-SIZE: 12pt; FONT-FAMILY: Garamond; mso-bidi-font-size: 18.0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">&#8221; Published at<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=H3 style="TEXT-JUSTIFY: inter-ideograph; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: justify"><A name=_Toc80504007><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-WEIGHT: normal; FONT-SIZE: 12pt; FONT-FAMILY: Garamond; mso-bidi-font-size: 14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">&#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">Uses and Users of Information&#8221;, </I>LIS 391D.1, Spring 1997</SPAN></A><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-WEIGHT: normal; FONT-SIZE: 12pt; FONT-FAMILY: Garamond; mso-bidi-font-size: 14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"> Available at <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; mso-layout-grid-align: none" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><A href="http://www.gslis.utexas.edu/~ssoy/usesusers/l391d1b.htm"><SPAN style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt">http://www.gslis.utexas.edu/~ssoy/usesusers/l391d1b.htm</SPAN></A><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; mso-layout-grid-align: none" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><STRONG><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-WEIGHT: normal; FONT-FAMILY: Garamond">Shen Jia (2000), &#8220;</SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB>User Interface Internationalization</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-GB>&#8221; available at </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt"><A href="http://eies.njit.edu/~turoff/coursenotes/CIS732/samplepro/user_interface_internationalizat.htm">http://eies.njit.edu/~turoff/coursenotes/CIS732/samplepro/user_interface_internationalizat.htm</A><o:p></o:p></SPAN></STRONG></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Steven John Simon (2001), &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">The impact of culture and gender on web sites: an empirical study</SPAN></I><SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">&#8221; Published at </SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">ACM SIGMIS Database Volume 32 Issue</I> available through the ACM Digital Library<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">Storey,John (2001) <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;</I></SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: black; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Cultural Theory and Popular Culture: An Introduction&#8221; </SPAN></I><st1:place><st1:PlaceType><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">University</SPAN></st1:PlaceType><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt"> of </SPAN><st1:PlaceName><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">Georgia Press</SPAN></st1:PlaceName></st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><st1:place><st1:PlaceName><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Thames</SPAN></st1:PlaceName><SPAN lang=EN-GB> </SPAN><st1:PlaceType><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Valleys</SPAN></st1:PlaceType></st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB> university - &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">Dissertation guide</I>&#8221; published at </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt"><A href="http://brent.tvu.ac.uk/dissguide/hm1home.htm">http://brent.tvu.ac.uk/dissguide/hm1home.htm</A></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: green"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN class=terms1><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: windowtext; FONT-FAMILY: Garamond; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt; mso-ansi-font-size: 12.0pt">Times Online (2004) &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">iGeneration - </I></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN class=sectiontext1><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: windowtext; FONT-FAMILY: Garamond; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold; mso-ansi-font-size: 12.0pt">A <SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-style: italic">Times</SPAN> survey of 18-30 year olds, the most extensive of its kind, revealed the private beliefs, fears and prejudices of the people who will inherit Britain&#8221;</SPAN></I></SPAN><SPAN class=sectiontext1><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: windowtext; FONT-FAMILY: Garamond; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold; mso-ansi-font-size: 12.0pt"> published at <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;The Times </I></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN class=terms1><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: windowtext; FONT-FAMILY: Garamond; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt; mso-ansi-font-size: 12.0pt">Newspaper&#8221; </SPAN></I></SPAN><SPAN class=terms1><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: windowtext; FONT-FAMILY: Garamond; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt; mso-ansi-font-size: 12.0pt">available at <o:p></o:p></SPAN></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt"><A href="http://www.timesonline.co.uk/section/0,,16949,00.html"><FONT color=#606420>http://www.timesonline.co.uk/section/0,,16949,00.html</FONT></A><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="COLOR: green"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; mso-layout-grid-align: none" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB>The world bank group (2002), &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">Data Collection Methods</I>&#8221; published at<SPAN style="COLOR: green"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; mso-layout-grid-align: none" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: green"><A href="http://www.worldbank.org/poverty/impact/methods/datacoll.htm">http://www.worldbank.org/poverty/impact/methods/datacoll.htm</A><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Tractinsky Noam (1997)&#8221;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">Aesthetics and Apparent Usability: Empirically Assessing Cultural and Methodological Issues</I>&#8221; Published at <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems</I> available through the ACM Digital Library<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Tang Fang-Fang, Thom Marcel G., Wang Liang Toon, Tan Joai Ching, Chow Wai Yee, Tang Xiaoyun. (2003) &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">Using insurance to create trust on the Internet</I>&#8221; published at <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Communications of the ACM</SPAN>, Volume 46 Issue 12 </I>available through the ACM Digital Library<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none; mso-pagination: none" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-US style="LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-style: italic; mso-bidi-font-family: Frutiger-Italic">Tomlinson, John (2003), <I>&#8220;</I></SPAN><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: Frutiger-Bold; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Globalization and Cultural Identity&#8221;</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-US style="LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: Frutiger-Bold; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"> Available at <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; tab-stops: 24.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none; mso-pagination: none" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><A href="http://www.polity.co.uk/global/pdf/GTReader2eTomlinson.pdf"><FONT color=#606420>http://www.polity.co.uk/global/pdf/GTReader2eTomlinson.pdf</FONT></A><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">TechTarget(2004), <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;<SPAN style="COLOR: black">searchCIO.com Definitions - e-commerce&#8221;</SPAN></I><SPAN style="COLOR: black"> available at <o:p></o:p></SPAN></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt"><A href="http://searchcio.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid19_gci212029,00.html"><FONT color=#606420>http://searchcio.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid19_gci212029,00.html</FONT></A><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: ????">Williamson, Dermot (2002), <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">&#8220;<SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Forward from a critique of Hofstede's model of national culture</SPAN></I>&#8221; Human Relations 2002 55: 1373-1395, </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-fareast-font-family: ????; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">Sage publication<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Which?online (2003), &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">Shopping online - annual Internet survey</I>&#8221; </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt"><A href="http://www.which.net/surveys/shop.html">http://www.which.net/surveys/shop.html</A><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">Whonose(Walker, Luke) (2004) available at <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt"><A href="http://www.xanga.com/whonose">http://www.xanga.com/who<SPAN style="mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW">no</SPAN>se</A><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; mso-layout-grid-align: none" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Zorn Ted &#8220;<I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">Designing and Conducting Semi-Structured Interviews for Research</SPAN></I><SPAN style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">&#8221; guideline published by </SPAN></SPAN><st1:place><st1:PlaceName><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Waikato</SPAN></st1:PlaceName><SPAN lang=EN-GB> </SPAN><st1:PlaceName><SPAN lang=EN-GB>Management</SPAN></st1:PlaceName><SPAN lang=EN-GB> </SPAN><st1:PlaceType><SPAN lang=EN-GB>School</SPAN></st1:PlaceType></st1:place><SPAN lang=EN-GB><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; tab-stops: 24.0pt" align=left><SPAN lang=EN-GB style="mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P></SPAN></FONT></FONT></SPAN><FONT face=Garamond><SPAN lang=EN-GB></DIV></H1></DIV></SPAN></FONT></H1><img src ="/alex2796/aggbug/479.aspx" width = "1" height = "1" />Alex WongCatch-up/shams/archive/2004/07/30/417.aspxFri, 30 Jul 2004 17:54:00 GMT/shams/archive/2004/07/30/417.aspx/shams/comments/417.aspx/shams/comments/commentRss/417.aspx/shams/archive/2004/07/30/417.aspx#comment38/shams/services/trackbacks/417.aspxCareer onTrackSince I have already gone through a few inteviews, the next few posts will contain a summary of my experiences till date. <img src ="/shams/aggbug/417.aspx" width = "1" height = "1" />Shamik ShahHiya World!!!!/shams/archive/2004/07/29/416.aspxThu, 29 Jul 2004 19:42:00 GMT/shams/archive/2004/07/29/416.aspx/shams/comments/416.aspx/shams/comments/commentRss/416.aspx/shams/archive/2004/07/29/416.aspx#comment10/shams/services/trackbacks/416.aspxCareer onTrack<P>My search for a new job has been going on for sometime now. In the beginning it was just sending out applications without getting any responses. Things finally began to look up and I started to get some positive responses and a couple of interview&nbsp;calls.&nbsp;In preparing for the interviews&nbsp;I got&nbsp;a lot of information from personal blogs&nbsp;maintained by&nbsp;other people. As a way of giving back to the community and to maintain a diary of&nbsp;my experiences I decided to blog my experiences on the web. </P> <P>To all the people who read this, I hope you find the information useful and best of luck :)</P> <P>&nbsp;</P> <P>&nbsp;</P><img src ="/shams/aggbug/416.aspx" width = "1" height = "1" />Shamik Shah2nd round/sachinappa/archive/2004/07/27/413.aspxTue, 27 Jul 2004 23:09:00 GMT/sachinappa/archive/2004/07/27/413.aspx/sachinappa/comments/413.aspx/sachinappa/comments/commentRss/413.aspx/sachinappa/archive/2004/07/27/413.aspx#comment12/sachinappa/services/trackbacks/413.aspxMy ThoughtsHi all, sorry for the hiatus. preparing for the second round of hell. just got over and thought that I should enter the questions before I forget. 1. Background <br> 2. Strengths & Weaknesses <br> 3. Career goals <br> 4. Given an array of integers (each repeating even number of times except one), find the one repeating odd number of times. <br> There you have it. All that was asked to me. I hope you find it usefull. BOL. <img src ="/sachinappa/aggbug/413.aspx" width = "1" height = "1" />SachinDay 3 /alex2796/archive/2004/07/20/412.aspxTue, 20 Jul 2004 14:57:00 GMT/alex2796/archive/2004/07/20/412.aspx/alex2796/comments/412.aspx/alex2796/comments/commentRss/412.aspx/alex2796/archive/2004/07/20/412.aspx#comment11/alex2796/services/trackbacks/412.aspxThe influence of cultural and aesthetic factors on trust in relation to local multilingual Internet <U> <P align=left>Title</P></U> <P align=left></P> <P align=left>Is culture and aesthetic the main factor affecting trust on a multilingual e-commerce site? </P> <P align=left></P> <P align=left>&nbsp;</P><U> <P align=left>Aim and objective</P></U> <P align=left></P> <P align=left>Although many research has been done on how to gain trust on e-commerce sites, but the aim of this research is focusing on the non-native English speaking users, whether two design factors &#8211; culture and aesthetic has more affect on trust on a multilingual e-commerce site that a English based e&#8211;commerce site. The researcher of this dissertation believes that more than language translation is needed to build trustworthy multilingual e-commerce site. This view is also supported by <I><FONT color=#3366ff>He</I></FONT> (2001),</P> <P align=left></P> <P align=left>"Language can be translated, but may not be correctly understood if it is not in the appropriate cultural context. Therefore, a language translation without an appropriate adaptation to its culture would be resulted in either misinformation or failure in communication."<I><FONT color=#3366ff> </P></I></FONT> <P align=left></P> <P align=left>The objective of this research is to produce a framework on how to uncover practical consideration on different cultural and aesthetic factors ( i.e. A framework on how to generate the list of the consideration), example on using the framework will also be include. </P> <P align=left></P><U> <P align=left>Research Question </P></U> <P align=left></P> <P align=left>Apart from answer the principal question, "Is culture and aesthetic the major factor affecting trust on a multilingual e-commerce site", other relevant question may arise, as the research is phenomenological.</P> <P align=left></P> <P align=left>But in order to focus on design factors on multilingual site, the technical, operational and third party involvement of the e-commerce site is disregarded in this research.</P> <P align=left></P> <P align=left>&nbsp;</P><U> <P align=left>Hypothesis</P> <P align=left></P></U> <P align=left>In order to answer the research question, the following hypothesis is decided.</P> <P align=left></P> <OL> <P align=left> <LI>Same aesthetic factor are seen differently in different Culture.</LI> <P></P> <P align=left> <LI>Bad translation has negative trust effect on the multilingual site (Some English are better left un-translate.) </LI> <P></P> <P align=left> <LI>International domain extension or Local domain extension (e.g. .com or co.uk) has no effect on trust.</LI> <P></P></OL> <P align=left> <HR id=null> </P> <P align=left>Reading papers on aesthetic factors</P> <P align=left><A href="/alex2796/admin/citation.cfm?id=355478&amp;coll=portal&amp;dl=ACM&amp;CFID=24637889&amp;CFTOKEN=19947024"><U><FONT color=#0000ff>The beauty of simplicity</U></FONT></A> </P> <P align=left>Kristiina Karvonen November 2000 </P> <P align=left><A href="/alex2796/admin/citation.cfm?id=333358&amp;coll=portal&amp;dl=ACM&amp;CFID=24637889&amp;CFTOKEN=19947024"><U><FONT color=#0000ff>Theory and models for creating engaging and immersive ecommerce Websites</U></FONT></A> </P> <P align=left>Morgan Jennings </P> <P align=left>Understanding the seductive experience </P> <P align=left>Julie Khaslavsky, Nathan Shedroff </P> <P align=left>&nbsp;</P><img src ="/alex2796/aggbug/412.aspx" width = "1" height = "1" />Alex Wonginterview details/sachinappa/archive/2004/07/16/405.aspxFri, 16 Jul 2004 17:19:00 GMT/sachinappa/archive/2004/07/16/405.aspx/sachinappa/comments/405.aspx/sachinappa/comments/commentRss/405.aspx/sachinappa/archive/2004/07/16/405.aspx#comment15/sachinappa/services/trackbacks/405.aspxMy Thoughtslet me log them now before I forget. it could probably help somebody. introduction <br> background <br> design a restaurant reservation system <br> test equality of two binary trees <br> missing number in a continuous range of 1 - 10000 <br> find a duplicate character in a string <br> print output given a piece of code. - wanted to test knowledge of fork() function. it beings a new process from where it currently resides. <br> any questions that I may have. <br> there it is. the results of my 6 days of hard work. looking back it appears that I did not need to put it that much effort but i guess I couldnt have answered all of them if i had not prepared. the pain, sweat, lack of sleep was worth it. waiting to hear from them. keeping my fingers crossed. <img src ="/sachinappa/aggbug/405.aspx" width = "1" height = "1" />SachinD-day!/sachinappa/archive/2004/07/16/404.aspxFri, 16 Jul 2004 17:15:00 GMT/sachinappa/archive/2004/07/16/404.aspx/sachinappa/comments/404.aspx/sachinappa/comments/commentRss/404.aspx/sachinappa/archive/2004/07/16/404.aspx#comment15/sachinappa/services/trackbacks/404.aspxMy Thoughtstoday is my interview. anxiety levels havent changed since I first heard of this interview. still nervous ! apurva is feeling the pressure too. he shares my room in the office. driving him nuts with my constant jitterness. but he is cool. understands how important this is to me. will stand by me through thick and thin. <img src ="/sachinappa/aggbug/404.aspx" width = "1" height = "1" />Sachinnervous as hell !/sachinappa/archive/2004/07/16/403.aspxFri, 16 Jul 2004 17:11:00 GMT/sachinappa/archive/2004/07/16/403.aspx/sachinappa/comments/403.aspx/sachinappa/comments/commentRss/403.aspx/sachinappa/archive/2004/07/16/403.aspx#comment17/sachinappa/services/trackbacks/403.aspxMy Thoughtsjust learned that I have an interview with Amazon ( my dream company) and all hell has broken loose. heard that technical interviews can get really hard. lets face it - there is enough computer science floating in the world that there is no way one could know all. more often the interview becomes an excercise to prove that the interviewer is so much smarted than the interviewee. why do they do that ? dont they remember their own times when they were on the other side of the table. has it been that long ago that they loose touch with their past ! in any case all I got to know that I have to prepare for this . giving it my best shot . thats what the Gita taught me ( and I am sure a lot of other cultures/religions) work hard and pay little attention to the results. do what you can do and leave the rest to what others can do. so with that in mind I have decided to jump in. <img src ="/sachinappa/aggbug/403.aspx" width = "1" height = "1" />SachinDay 2 - literature review on trust.... /alex2796/archive/2004/07/13/402.aspxTue, 13 Jul 2004 13:05:00 GMT/alex2796/archive/2004/07/13/402.aspx/alex2796/comments/402.aspx/alex2796/comments/commentRss/402.aspx/alex2796/archive/2004/07/13/402.aspx#comment13/alex2796/services/trackbacks/402.aspxThe influence of cultural and aesthetic factors on trust in relation to local multilingual Internet <B><U><FONT size=4> <P align=left>Literature review </P> <P align=left></P></B></FONT> <P align=left>Trust in relation to e-commerce </P> <P align=left></P></U> <P align=left>Trust is needed whenever there is interaction between parties of two or more, and it is also a fundamental requirement of economic activity. Many different definition of trust has been descried in many fields. Rather then restating all these definition, this section will specific described trust related to e-commerce. </P> <P align=left></P> <P align=left>According to <I><FONT color=#3366ff>Rutter</I></FONT>(2001), trust has very little relationship to technical security. As he mentions, "trust is not something that can be offered to technologies regardless of how artificially intelligent or interactive they may appear. Trust is a good traded between individuals rather than between people and mediating technologies." </P> <P align=left></P> <P align=left>The <I><FONT color=#3366ff>Oxford dictionary</I></FONT> defined trust as "firm belief in the reliability, truth, ability, or strength of someone or something; the state of being responsible for someone or something." This definition is referring the direct relationship, where <I><FONT color=#3366ff>Clark</I></FONT>(2000) define it as the most effective trust, often it is build based on past experience whereas image of trustworthiness in the lease effective. Referring it to business, it is whether the consumer believe in the competence of the service provider can adequately satisfied the expectation. In traditional shopping, the trust relationship can be build based on giving customer visual clues such as the sizes and lay out of the store, and interaction between staff as customer can apply past experience to the judgement. </P><U> <P align=left></P></U> <P align=left>In business that requires higher trust, it can be refer as "credit given, especially delivery of property or merchandise is upon future payment, or exchange without immediate receipt of an equivalent; selling or buying by trust" - <I><FONT color=#3366ff>Webster's 1913 Dictionary</I></FONT>, which is what Internet shopping required as it is more difficult to promote risk taking from the consumer than &#8216;real&#8217; shopping, as the trading stretches over spaces and time of which payment and personal information are also required before the receipt of the goods. Hence, the customer (trustor) has to have enough trust in the company (trustee) to overcome the risk considerations in order to uses its services. In other words, <FONT size=3>trust is a decision factor on whether to make that purchase. This views is also suggested by</FONT><I> <FONT color=#3366ff>Grabner-Kraeuter</I></FONT> (2002) where he said<FONT size=3>, "Having only limited cognitive resources available, consumers seek to reduce the uncertainty and complexity of </FONT>transactions in electronic markets by applying mental shortcuts. One effective mental shortcut is trust". To be more precise, it is whether the customer can risk believing in the company fulfilling the order on time, provide security of information and customer support. </P> <P align=left></P> <P align=left>Many research was done on how to gain cognitive trust, such as trust seals, whereas <I><FONT color=#3366ff>Riegelsberger</I></FONT> (2003) suggested human trust decisions are also based on affective reactions, which can be triggered by interpersonal cues. One interpersonal cue he was investigating was the use of photographs where <I><FONT color=#3366ff>Fogg</I></FONT> (2002) found that photos accompanying on-line articles can increase their credibility. Hence usability plays a important role in gaining trust as confirmed by <I><FONT color=#3366ff>Lanford</I></FONT> (2004) where he also suggest design guideline in trustworthiness, <I><FONT color=#3366ff>Kim</I></FONT> (2003) also suggested a framework explaining the subsequent relationships of trust and satisfaction (trust<FONT face="Arial Black">?</FONT> satisfaction<FONT face="Arial Black">?</FONT> post-trust<FONT face="Arial Black">?</FONT> long-term trust) where long-term trust is the goal of the framework and it depends on the post-purchase process (i.e. trustworthiness) rather than the first-time use.</P> <P align=left></P><U> <P align=left>Culture differences on the web</P></U> <P align=left></P><I><FONT color=#3366ff> <P align=left>Hofstede</I></FONT> (1990) published a research on culture difference with different countries where the he listed five dimension of culture as follows,</P> <UL> <P align=left> <LI>Power-distance </LI> <P></P> <P align=left> <LI>Collectivism vs. individualism </LI> <P></P> <P align=left> <LI>Femininity vs. masculinity </LI> <P></P> <P align=left> <LI>Uncertainty avoidance </LI> <P></P> <P align=left> <LI>Long- vs. short-term orientation </LI> <P></P></UL> <P align=left>A article by <I><FONT color=#3366ff>Marcus & Gould</I></FONT> (2000)has explain it detail with regarding the five dimension to web design.</P> <P align=left></P> <P align=left>Although Hofstede&#8217;s research was published over a decade ago, the internet are still English dominated today. A study by <I><FONT color=#3366ff>global-reach </I></FONT>indicated that up until March,2004, 64.2% of internet users are not native English speaker. The Language barrier poses great difficulties for these users, although this problem has been addressed in the recent years, and many site has produced multilingual versions of their site, but as point out In<FONT color=#3366ff> <I>The Times</I></FONT> of London (Apr. 20, 2000), an article entitled "Are We All Speaking the Same Language?" reports "many companies that elect to rely purely on a Web site to trade internationally are failing to take linguistic and cultural differences sufficiently into account." Meaning multilingual site are more that just translating the content, as pointed out by <I><FONT color=#3366ff>He</I></FONT> (2001) "Language can be</P> <P align=left>translated, but may not be correctly understood if it is not in the appropriate cultural context."</P> <P align=left></P> <P align=left>A better understanding of how cultural differences may affect consumer evaluations of websites may help the design of multilingual website, it can be seem as similar to the interpersonal clues as mentioned in the pervious section. A number of research relating culture and web design was done in the recent years. A project by <I><FONT color=#3366ff>Barber and Badre</I></FONT> (1998) which aims to understand the relationship between culture and usability has produced a list of cultural markers of web designs, whereas a more recent study by <I><FONT color=#3366ff>Chau, Cole, Massey, Montoya-Weiss, O'Keefe</FONT> </I>(2002) said "consumer interfaces targeted to different countries/cultures may not need to be completely different from each other, but there must be some features that allow the targeted audience to feel at home." The results from<I><FONT color=#3366ff> Simon</I></FONT><FONT color=#00ccff> </FONT>(2001) study also confirms that there are indeed differences between cultural and gender-based perception and satisfaction with websites.</P> <P align=left></P> <P align=left>Furthermore, referring back to <FONT color=#3366ff>Lanford</FONT> (2004)&#8217;s article, although culture was not mention in the article, but the guidelines he suggested on building trustworthiness can be seen as culture related.</P> <P align=left></P> <P align=left>- Fulfil the customer&#8217;s expectations, </P> <P align=left>- Let the user feel in control, </P> <P align=left>- Put consumer interests above your own, </P> <P align=left>- Build a good reputation, i.e., not just real but also perceived trustworthiness,</P> <P align=left>- Consider moving certain risky actions to third party.</P> <P align=left></P><img src ="/alex2796/aggbug/402.aspx" width = "1" height = "1" />Alex WongDay one - Literature review/alex2796/archive/2004/07/08/397.aspxThu, 08 Jul 2004 11:53:00 GMT/alex2796/archive/2004/07/08/397.aspx/alex2796/comments/397.aspx/alex2796/comments/commentRss/397.aspx/alex2796/archive/2004/07/08/397.aspx#comment13/alex2796/services/trackbacks/397.aspxThe influence of cultural and aesthetic factors on trust in relation to local multilingual Internet <P><STRONG>Today's Objective:</STRONG> Read research papers relating to culture and web design</P> <P>Cross-cultural usability is about making websites an effective means of communication between a global website owner and a local user.</P> <P> <HR id=null> <P></P> <P><STRONG>Title</STRONG>: Crosscurrent: Cultural dimensions and global Web&nbsp;user-interface design</P> <P><STRONG>By</STRONG>: Aaron Marcus, Emilie West Gould&nbsp;&nbsp;(ACM)</P> <P><STRONG>Notes:</STRONG></P> <P>- Hofstede's Dimensions of Culture; Country rating index</P> <LI><U>Power-distance</U> <P>university example - High PD, emphasis on leaders. Low PD,&nbsp;emphasis on student&nbsp;&nbsp;</P> <LI><U>Collectivism&nbsp; vs. individualism</U> <P>Indivdualism - (look after one's self or immediate family but no one else)</P> <P>Collectivism - (people are integrated from birth into strong, cohesive groups that protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty)</P> <LI><U>Femininity vs. masculinity </U> <P>High-masculinity cultures would focus on the following user-interface and design elements:</P> <UL class=acm> <LI>Traditional gender/family/age distinctions. <LI>Work tasks, roles, and mastery, with quick results for limited tasks. <LI>Navigation oriented to exploration and control. <LI>Attention gained through games and competitions. <LI>Graphics, sound, and animation used for utilitarian purposes. </LI></UL> <P>Feminine cultures would emphasize the following user-interface elements:</P> <UL class=acm> <LI>Blurring of gender roles. <LI>Mutual cooperation, exchange, and support, (rather than mastery and winning). <LI>Attention gained through poetry, visual aesthetics, and appeals to unifying values. </LI></UL> <LI><U>Uncertainty avoidance </U> <P>Based on this definition, we believe uncertainty avoidance may influence contrary aspects of user-interface and Web design. High-UA cultures would emphasize the following:</P> <UL class=acm> <LI>Simplicity, with clear metaphors, limited choices, and restricted amounts of data. <LI>Attempts to reveal or forecast the results or implications of actions before users act. <LI>Navigation schemes intended to prevent users from becoming lost. <LI>Mental models and help systems that focus on reducing "user errors." <LI>Redundant cues (color, typography, sound, etc.) to reduce ambiguity. </LI></UL> <P>Low UA cultures would emphasize the reverse:</P> <UL class=acm> <LI>Complexity with maximal content and choices. <LI>Acceptance (even encouragement) of wandering and risk, with a stigma on "over-protection." <LI>Less control of navigation; for example, links might open new windows leading away from the original location. <LI>Mental models and help systems might focus on understanding underlying concepts rather than narrow tasks. <LI>Coding of color, typography, and sound to maximize information (multiple links without redundant cueing). </LI></UL> <LI><U>Long- vs. short-term orientation</U> <P>Based on this definition, high LT countries would emphasize the following aspects of user-interface design:</P> <UL class=acm> <LI>Content focused on practice and practical value. <LI>Relationships as a source of information and credibility. <LI>Patience in achieving results and goals. </LI></UL> <P>Low LT countries would emphasize the contrary:</P> <UL class=acm> <LI>Content focused on truth and certainty of beliefs. <LI>Rules as a source of information and credibility. <LI>Desire for immediate results and achievement of goals. </LI></UL> <P> <HR id=null> <P></P> <P><STRONG>Title</STRONG>:Cultual difference in the online&nbsp;behavior of consumers&nbsp;</P> <P><STRONG>By</STRONG>: Patrick Y.K. Chau, Melissa Cole, Anne P. Massey, Mitzi Montoya-Weiss, Robert M. O'Keefe (ACM)</P> <P><STRONG>Notes:</STRONG></P> <P>Recent WVTM survey shows demographics alone are not important in terms of buying online. Instead, the study found that a wired lifestyle (measured by months/years of Internet experience, what is being bought and why) is crucial to Internet shopping. In particular, the most important predictor of online buying behavior was product information search. If this applies to consumers from different countries, then the extent to which consumers in different parts of the world use the Internet to search for product information may become a key determinant of the transaction volume of consumer e-commerce. </P> <P>This study proves the online behaviors of consumers un HK and&nbsp;U.S.&nbsp;are subtlety different in nature from traditional consumer behavior due to the unique characteristics and interplay of technology and culture.</P> <P> <HR id=null> <P></P> <P><STRONG>Title</STRONG>: A process model for developing usable cross-cultural websites </P> <P><STRONG>By</STRONG>: Andy Smith, Lynne Dunckley, Tim French, Shailey Minocha<SUP> </SUP>and Yu Chang</P></LI> <P><A href="http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&amp;_cdi=5644&amp;_auth=y&amp;_acct=C000010139&amp;_version=1&amp;_urlVersion=0&amp;_userid=122883&amp;md5=5c8cd37b7a20fe759edd8e3fd7119502"><FONT size=2><FONT face=Verdana><B>Interacting with Computers</B> </FONT></FONT></A><FONT style="FONT-SIZE: smaller; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana"><BR><A href="http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=IssueURL&amp;_tockey=%23TOC%235644%232004%23999839998%23476770%23FLA%23display%23Volume_16,_Issue_1,_Pages_1-161_(February_2004)%2BMGlobal_Human_Computer_Systems%3ACultural_Determinants_in_Usability%2BMEdited_by_A.Smith_and_F.Yetim%23tagged%23Volume%23first%3D16%23Issue%23first%3D1%23Pages%23first%3D1%23last%3D161%23date%23(February_2004)%23specissname%23Global_Human_Computer_Systems%3ACultural_Determinants_in_Usability%23specisseditor%23Edited_by_A.Smith_and_F.Yetim%23&amp;_auth=y&amp;view=c&amp;_acct=C000010139&amp;_version=1&amp;_urlVersion=0&amp;_userid=122883&amp;md5=55405a27d3b3773e8e33dc1f10f275dc">Volume 16, Issue 1</A> , February 2004, Pages 63-91 </FONT><BR><FONT style="FONT-SIZE: smaller; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif">Global Human Computer Systems:Cultural Determinants in Usability</FONT> </P> <P><STRONG>Notes:</STRONG></P> <P>The concept of <I>cultural attractors</I> to define the interface design elements of the website that reflect the signs and their meanings to match the expectations of the local culture</P> <P>The cultural attractors typically comprise of: colours, colour combinations, banner adverts, trust signs, use of metaphor, language cues, navigation controls and similar visual elements that together create a &#8216;look and feel&#8217; to match the cultural expectations of the users for that particular domain</P> <P>&nbsp;</P><img src ="/alex2796/aggbug/397.aspx" width = "1" height = "1" />Alex WongHandout Outline PLEASE ADD YOUR TOPICS!!/water/archive/2004/06/25/377.aspxFri, 25 Jun 2004 03:19:00 GMT/water/archive/2004/06/25/377.aspx/water/comments/377.aspx/water/comments/commentRss/377.aspx/water/archive/2004/06/25/377.aspx#comment16/water/services/trackbacks/377.aspxWater Case Study<P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: center" align=center><B style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="FONT-SIZE: 22pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">Title<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p></SPAN></B></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: center" align=center><B style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA"><o:p> </o:p></SPAN></B></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">Introduction~ by Cory Blogett<o:p></o:p></SPAN></I></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 36pt; TEXT-INDENT: 36pt"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA"><SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes"> </SPAN></SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">-<SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes">    </SPAN>visual water demonstration<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 90pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 90.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">-<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">         </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">summary of main points<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 72pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA"><o:p> </o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">Part Two: Water Past and Present~ by Serina<o:p></o:p></SPAN></I></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA"><o:p> </o:p></SPAN></I></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA"><o:p> </o:p></SPAN></I></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA"><o:p> PLEASE ADD YOUR PARTS! Change what needs to be changed</o:p></SPAN></I></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA"><o:p> </o:p></SPAN></I></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">Part Three: Present Initiatives for the Conservation and Cleansing of Water~ by Mary McQuaid<o:p></o:p></SPAN></I></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 90pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 90.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">-<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">         </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">recent approval of 4 million dollar grant for water conservation in the <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:country-region w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">US</st1:place></st1:country-region><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 90pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 90.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">-<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">         </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">United Nations Millenium Declaration<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 90pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 90.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA"><SPAN style="mso-list: Ignore">-<SPAN style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">         </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">Living up to the Millenium Declaration challenge<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA"><o:p> </o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">Part Four: The Future of Water in Our World~ by TD MacDonald and Erin Blaikie</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA"><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA"><o:p> </o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA"><o:p> </o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA"><o:p> </o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">Conclusion~ by Cory Blogett</SPAN></I><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA"> <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 72pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA"><o:p> </o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 72pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA"><o:p> </o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA"><o:p> </o:p></SPAN></P><img src ="/water/aggbug/377.aspx" width = "1" height = "1" />Team Duct TapeMary's Stuff - posted for Erin's sanity/water/archive/2004/06/24/376.aspxFri, 25 Jun 2004 02:05:00 GMT/water/archive/2004/06/24/376.aspx/water/comments/376.aspx/water/comments/commentRss/376.aspx/water/archive/2004/06/24/376.aspx#comment11/water/services/trackbacks/376.aspxWater Case Study<P class=MsoNormal style="mso-xmargin-top-alt: auto; mso-xmargin-bottom-alt: auto"><FONT face="Times New Roman" size=3><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt">Since so many countries are lacking in water, programs and committies have naturally been created to help deal with this problem. These vary from local community groups to large national and international initiatives.<?XML:NAMESPACE PREFIX = O /><O:P></O:P></SPAN></FONT></P> <P><FONT face="Times New Roman" size=3><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; One example of a national initiative is US Interior Secretary Gale Norton&#8217;s recent approval of more than four million dollars in water conservation grants. These grants are for 19 different projects in ten different states, and these projects promote things like using new water technology and removing institutional barriers to increase cooperation and collaboration between </SPAN></FONT><FONT face=Verdana size=1><SPAN style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">federal, state, tribal and private organizations.<FONT color=#993366><SPAN style="COLOR: #993366"> </SPAN></FONT>The projects will help reduce the amount of water lost due to inefficient or worn out water systems.<O:P></O:P></SPAN></FONT></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="mso-xmargin-top-alt: auto; mso-xmargin-bottom-alt: auto"><FONT face="Times New Roman" size=3><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt">Another big organization that is trying to help deal with the shortage of available water is the United Nations. This organization was created in 1945 with the goal of creating a better future for our world. As you probably know, it is concerned with many other problems in addition to water, but it has never the less taken the time to address this issue in its Millenium Declaration. In this declaration, the UN appeals to all countries </SPAN></FONT><FONT face=Verdana color=black size=2><SPAN style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Verdana">"to halve by the year 2015 (...) the proportion of people who are unable to reach, or to afford, safe drinking water" and "to stop the unsustainable exploitation of water resources, by developing water management strategies at the regional, national and local levels, which promote both equitable access and adequate supply".<O:P></O:P></SPAN></FONT></P> <P class=MsoNormal><FONT face="Times New Roman" size=3><SPAN style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Several organizations that are trying to live up to the water challenge set by the millennium Declaration, including the World Water Assesment Program and the Water Sanitation Program. <O:P></O:P></SPAN></FONT></P> <P class=MsoNormal><FONT face="Times New Roman" size=3><SPAN style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The World Water Assessment is trying to meet the challenge by researching water extensively, to help in more informed decisions about the management of water.<O:P></O:P></SPAN></FONT></P> <P class=MsoNormal><FONT face="Times New Roman" size=3><SPAN style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The Water Sanitation Program however, is more of a humanitarian organization. It&#8217;s actually a collaboration between The World Bank and the <A href="http://64.4.26.250/cgi-bin/linkrd?_lang=EN&amp;lah=d73a34ff85c55376a399b200e31aa521&amp;lat=1088127974&amp;hm___action=http%3a%2f%2fwww%2eundp%2eorg" target=_blank><FONT color=black target="_blank"><SPAN style="COLOR: windowtext; TEXT-DECORATION: none" target="_blank">United Nations Development Program</SPAN></FONT></A> to examine cost effective technologies and models that would provide the poor of the world with safe water and sanitation.<O:P></O:P></SPAN></FONT></P> <P class=MsoNormal><FONT face="Times New Roman" size=3><SPAN style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Most of the programs that we have to date are helping to improve our current situation. However, if the current trends continue,&nbsp;these programs might not be enough. DT will now discuss with you how water troubles might affect our world in the future.</SPAN></FONT></P><img src ="/water/aggbug/376.aspx" width = "1" height = "1" />Team Duct Tapepictures/water/archive/2004/06/24/373.aspxThu, 24 Jun 2004 18:27:00 GMT/water/archive/2004/06/24/373.aspx/water/comments/373.aspx/water/comments/commentRss/373.aspx/water/archive/2004/06/24/373.aspx#comment15/water/services/trackbacks/373.aspxWater Case Study<P>Alright, here are some interesting pictures. There's one in particular, or African women carrying water from the river on their heads, that could really illstrate well how water was obtained in the past. I think there's also a few pictures of sad little children.</P><img src ="/water/aggbug/373.aspx" width = "1" height = "1" />Team Duct TapeSome info on my part/water/archive/2004/06/24/372.aspxThu, 24 Jun 2004 18:24:00 GMT/water/archive/2004/06/24/372.aspx/water/comments/372.aspx/water/comments/commentRss/372.aspx/water/archive/2004/06/24/372.aspx#comment21/water/services/trackbacks/372.aspxWater Case Study<P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><B style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">Water<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p></SPAN></B></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><B style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></B></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><B style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">Past, what water was used for, Present what has it become and why?<o:p></o:p></SPAN></B></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><B style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></B></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><U><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">Past<o:p></o:p></SPAN></U></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><U><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA"><o:p><SPAN style="TEXT-DECORATION: none">&nbsp;</SPAN></o:p></SPAN></U></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><U><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA"><o:p><SPAN style="TEXT-DECORATION: none">&nbsp;</SPAN></o:p></SPAN></U></P> <UL style="MARGIN-TOP: 0cm" type=disc> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 36.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">We used less water<o:p></o:p></SPAN> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 36.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">Less water pollution<o:p></o:p></SPAN> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 36.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">Smaller population<o:p></o:p></SPAN> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 36.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></LI></UL> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><U><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">Present <o:p></o:p></SPAN></U></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><U><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA"><o:p><SPAN style="TEXT-DECORATION: none">&nbsp;</SPAN></o:p></SPAN></U></P> <UL style="MARGIN-TOP: 0cm" type=disc> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 36.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">We use more water for impractical uses ( golf courses, washing cars, etc) While in some countries people have to drink contaminated water because of lack of water<o:p></o:p></SPAN> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 36.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">Pollution is threatening our limited water resources and in countries people are forced to drink polluted water, causing illness and death<o:p></o:p></SPAN> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 36.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">Every 15 seconds a child dies from drinking contaminated water<o:p></o:p></SPAN> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 36.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">With climate change, the number of droughts have increased<o:p></o:p></SPAN> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 36.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">Some countries lock up water supplies and deny people their right to water<o:p></o:p></SPAN> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 36.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">Some governments haven&#8217;t made up regulations regarding water management<o:p></o:p></SPAN> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 36.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">31 countries face water scarcity and stress<o:p></o:p></SPAN> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 36.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">One billion lack access to fresh and clean water to drink<o:p></o:p></SPAN> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 36.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">Global demand of water has risen 6 times from 1900 to 1995<o:p></o:p></SPAN> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 36.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">Rivers and lakes are shrinking<o:p></o:p></SPAN> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 36.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">Great amounts of waste from agricultural use<o:p></o:p></SPAN> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 36.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">80% of marine pollution is affected by land pollution, there fore rivers<o:p></o:p></SPAN> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 36.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">Worst affected countries are middle east and <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:place w:st="on">Africa</st1:place><o:p></o:p></SPAN> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 36.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">We cannot replace water<o:p></o:p></SPAN></LI></UL> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">Bibliography<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><A href="http://www.slemishcollege.org.uk/Water%20resources.gif">http://www.slemishcollege.org.uk/Water%20resources.gif</A></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><A href="http://www.un.org/Pubs/CyberSchoolBus/bookstor/images/waterpol.gif">http://www.un.org/Pubs/CyberSchoolBus/bookstor/images/waterpol.gif</A></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><A href="http://images.google.ca/imgres?imgurl=www.swales.wea.org.uk/myweb4/images/env%2520agency%2520world%2520water.gif&amp;imgrefurl=http://www.swales.wea.org.uk/myweb4/water%2520crisis.htm&amp;h=227&amp;w=416&amp;sz=9&amp;tbnid=QIW4Rd4KicUJ:&amp;tbnh=66&amp;tbnw=120&amp;start=8&amp;prev=/images%3Fq%3Dpolluted%2Bwater%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26ie%3DUTF-8">http://images.google.ca/imgres?imgurl=www.swales.wea.org.uk/myweb4/images/env%2520agency%2520world%2520water.gif&amp;imgrefurl=http://www.swales.wea.org.uk/myweb4/water%2520crisis.htm&amp;h=227&amp;w=416&amp;sz=9&amp;tbnid=QIW4Rd4KicUJ:&amp;tbnh=66&amp;tbnw=120&amp;start=8&amp;prev=/images%3Fq%3Dpolluted%2Bwater%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26ie%3DUTF-8</A></P> <DIV style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; PADDING-RIGHT: 0cm; BORDER-TOP: medium none; PADDING-LEFT: 0cm; PADDING-BOTTOM: 1pt; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 3pt dotted; mso-element: para-border-div"> <P class=MsoNormal style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; PADDING-RIGHT: 0cm; BORDER-TOP: medium none; PADDING-LEFT: 0cm; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: medium none; mso-border-bottom-alt: dotted windowtext 3.0pt; mso-padding-alt: 0cm 0cm 1.0pt 0cm"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">http://www.unesco.org/science/waterday2000/Brochure.htm<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; PADDING-RIGHT: 0cm; BORDER-TOP: medium none; PADDING-LEFT: 0cm; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0cm; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; PADDING-TOP: 0cm; BORDER-BOTTOM: medium none; mso-border-bottom-alt: dotted windowtext 3.0pt; mso-padding-alt: 0cm 0cm 1.0pt 0cm"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">http://www.newint.org/issue354/facts.html<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></DIV> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt">~ Serena</P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt">&nbsp;</P><img src ="/water/aggbug/372.aspx" width = "1" height = "1" />Team Duct Tapepictures/water/archive/2004/06/24/371.aspxThu, 24 Jun 2004 17:12:00 GMT/water/archive/2004/06/24/371.aspx/water/comments/371.aspx/water/comments/commentRss/371.aspx/water/archive/2004/06/24/371.aspx#comment10/water/services/trackbacks/371.aspxWater Case Study<P>Alright, here are some interesting pictures. There's one in particular, or African women carrying water from the river on their heads, that could really illstrate well how water was obtained in the past. I think there's also a few pictures of sad little children. Here's the adress: <A href="http://www.unesco.org/water/ihp/ihp_six.shtml">http://www.unesco.org/water/ihp/ihp_six.shtml</A></P><img src ="/water/aggbug/371.aspx" width = "1" height = "1" />Team Duct Tapeintro-please edit- thanks/water/archive/2004/06/24/370.aspxThu, 24 Jun 2004 16:32:00 GMT/water/archive/2004/06/24/370.aspx/water/comments/370.aspx/water/comments/commentRss/370.aspx/water/archive/2004/06/24/370.aspx#comment10/water/services/trackbacks/370.aspxWater Case Study<P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0in 0in 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in">Can you imagine complaining about the rising cost of water?&nbsp;Could you&nbsp;afford to pay a fee every time you turn on the tap? This&nbsp;might become a reality within our lifetimes. Fresh water is rapidly disappearing and may soon become an expensive commodity. Unless we do something about it, this precious resource may become scarce. If this were to happen, water; the most basic human need, could become impossible for some people to obtain. We&nbsp;must utilize new technologies and adjust our social systems to ensure that everyone can get access to clean, drinkable water. </P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0in 0in 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in">&nbsp;</P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0in 0in 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in">Water Model</P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0in 0in 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in">97.24-salt water&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 14.8 liters</P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0in 0in 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in">2.14-frozen water</P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0in 0in 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in">.32-inaccessable fresh water</P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0in 0in 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in">.3- fresh water&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;.04048 liters</P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0in 0in 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in">.26- clean, drinkable fresh water&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; .03848 liters</P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0in 0in 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in">&nbsp;</P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0in 0in 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in">As you can see, we are left with a very small amount of water that can be used by humans. And as Serina will discuss, an increase in population will only worsen the problem.&nbsp;A number of programs already exist that are&nbsp;designed to help combat the growing problem which&nbsp;Mary will expound on. But&nbsp;even these programs&nbsp;are not enough, Privatization is slowly taking over the water industry, so we will have to work hard to develop new technologies&nbsp;that make fresh water more accessable to the public. TD will tell you more about that. &nbsp;Now i'll turn it over to serina who can tell you more about how we came into out current situation. </P><img src ="/water/aggbug/370.aspx" width = "1" height = "1" />Team Duct TapeEtc./water/archive/2004/06/24/369.aspxThu, 24 Jun 2004 10:43:00 GMT/water/archive/2004/06/24/369.aspx/water/comments/369.aspx/water/comments/commentRss/369.aspx/water/archive/2004/06/24/369.aspx#comment12/water/services/trackbacks/369.aspxWater Case Study<P><FONT face=Tahoma>Mary's outline looks really good.&nbsp; I've just reviewed the schedule, and we have basically no time to work on our case studies.&nbsp; In fact, we're supposed to practice the presentation tonight!&nbsp; Try to get as much work done today as possible whenever you can squeeze it in.. as I understand it, Cory is doing the introduction, Serena and TD are doing the &#8220;Present&#8221; Section, I'm doing the &#8220;Future&#8221; section, and Mary is either working with me or with Serena and TD.&nbsp; Please correct me if I'm wrong!</FONT></P> <P><FONT face=Tahoma>~ Erin</FONT></P><img src ="/water/aggbug/369.aspx" width = "1" height = "1" />Team Duct TapeFurther outlining/water/archive/2004/06/23/367.aspxWed, 23 Jun 2004 20:29:00 GMT/water/archive/2004/06/23/367.aspx/water/comments/367.aspx/water/comments/commentRss/367.aspx/water/archive/2004/06/23/367.aspx#comment6/water/services/trackbacks/367.aspxWater Case Study<P>While I was on the bus today, I tried to come up with a sort of outline for this, and here's what I came up with:</P> <P>INTRO</P> <P>A. thought provoking question</P> <P>B. Water bottle visual demonstration&nbsp;&nbsp;(don't forget to explain briefly how come we can't drink the water (so baisically salt, pollution, etc), and how the water got that way (at least for the pollution part)).</P> <P>C. Briefly say what the projections for the future are</P> <P>D. Thesis statement. A possible one that I came up with was: </P> <P><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">&#8220;Drinkable&nbsp;water is rapidly disappearing and becoming a highly valued commodity. To avoid an international water crisis, we must either find a way to effectively replenish our supply, or develop an efficient system for its distribution.&#8221;</SPAN></P> <P><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">The first sentence isn't really necessary, but we can put it in if we haven't already mentioned it.</SPAN></P> <P><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">PART ONE- WATER PAST AND PRESENT</SPAN></P> <P><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">A. How and where water was obtained in the past and what it was used for</SPAN></P> <P><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">B. How and where water is obtained today and what it's used for, how this differs from past ways, and why there are differences (ex: what changes occurred to create these differences)</SPAN></P> <P><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">C. What programs are presently in place to deal with water scarcity.</SPAN></P> <P><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">PART TWO- THE FUTURE OF WATER</SPAN></P> <P><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">(Try to fit in the definition of scarcity somewhere)</SPAN></P> <P><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">A. Ways to augement the amount of available fresh water</SPAN></P> <P><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; I. Cleaning polluted water (distillation, flitration, etc...)</SPAN></P> <P><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;II. Making water (do we have the technology, how much energy would it require, would it be efficient and practical?)</SPAN></P> <P><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">B. Ways to distribute water</SPAN></P> <P><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; I. Don't do anything, just let things evolve on their own (countries charging for water, water wars, etc.)</SPAN></P> <P><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; II. Water goes to the highest bidder, or at least has a charge&nbsp;(problem: right to life, right to water).</SPAN></P> <P><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;III. Creating and enforcing international laws/policies to make sure that countries don't charge for water, but do distribute it equally and fairly to all citizens.</SPAN></P> <P><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; IV. Distribute by status</SPAN></P> <P><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; V. By luck ( have lotteries? To see who gets the most?).</SPAN></P> <P><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">Anyway, tell me what you think when we have group time to work on our case studies later. I'm not really sure what everyone was thinking, so tell me if I'm completely off track.</SPAN></P> <P><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">-Mary</SPAN></P><img src ="/water/aggbug/367.aspx" width = "1" height = "1" />Team Duct TapeOur Outline So Far.../water/archive/2004/06/22/365.aspxWed, 23 Jun 2004 02:06:00 GMT/water/archive/2004/06/22/365.aspx/water/comments/365.aspx/water/comments/commentRss/365.aspx/water/archive/2004/06/22/365.aspx#comment11/water/services/trackbacks/365.aspxWater Case Study<P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: center" align=center><B style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><U><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="FONT-FAMILY: Tahoma; mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">Outline<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p></SPAN></U></B></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: center" align=center><B style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><U><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="FONT-FAMILY: Tahoma; mso-ansi-language: EN-CA"><o:p><SPAN style="TEXT-DECORATION: none">&nbsp;</SPAN></o:p></SPAN></U></B></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><U><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="FONT-FAMILY: Tahoma; mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">Introduction &#8211; The Past<o:p></o:p></SPAN></U></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><U><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="FONT-FAMILY: Tahoma; mso-ansi-language: EN-CA"><o:p><SPAN style="TEXT-DECORATION: none">&nbsp;</SPAN></o:p></SPAN></U></P> <UL style="MARGIN-TOP: 0cm" type=disc> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 36.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="FONT-FAMILY: Tahoma; mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">Illustration &#8211; the water jug<o:p></o:p></SPAN></LI> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 36.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="FONT-FAMILY: Tahoma; mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">How water has been polluted<o:p></o:p></SPAN></LI> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 36.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="FONT-FAMILY: Tahoma; mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">Why water scarcity has been a problem<o:p></o:p></SPAN></LI> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 36.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="FONT-FAMILY: Tahoma; mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">Can you imagine spending $10 or more every time you turn on the tap?<o:p></o:p></SPAN></LI> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 36.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="FONT-FAMILY: Tahoma; mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">Can you imagine complaining about the rising costs of water?<o:p></o:p></SPAN></LI> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 36.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="FONT-FAMILY: Tahoma; mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">Prove that water is a rapidly vanishing commodity and if current trends continue, there will soon be no viable drinking water left.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></LI></UL> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="FONT-FAMILY: Tahoma; mso-ansi-language: EN-CA"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="FONT-FAMILY: Tahoma; mso-ansi-language: EN-CA"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><U><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="FONT-FAMILY: Tahoma; mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">The Present &#8211; Current Water Situation<o:p></o:p></SPAN></U></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><U><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="FONT-FAMILY: Tahoma; mso-ansi-language: EN-CA"><o:p><SPAN style="TEXT-DECORATION: none">&nbsp;</SPAN></o:p></SPAN></U></P> <UL style="MARGIN-TOP: 0cm" type=disc> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-list: l1 level1 lfo2; tab-stops: list 36.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="FONT-FAMILY: Tahoma; mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">Describe current water trends<o:p></o:p></SPAN></LI> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-list: l1 level1 lfo2; tab-stops: list 36.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="FONT-FAMILY: Tahoma; mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">What&#8217;s wrong with the water we have now<o:p></o:p></SPAN></LI> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-list: l1 level1 lfo2; tab-stops: list 36.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="FONT-FAMILY: Tahoma; mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">13, 000 people die daily from problems with their drinking water<o:p></o:p></SPAN></LI> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-list: l1 level1 lfo2; tab-stops: list 36.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="FONT-FAMILY: Tahoma; mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">Disappearing commodity<o:p></o:p></SPAN></LI> <LI class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-list: l1 level1 lfo2; tab-stops: list 36.0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-CA style="FONT-FAMILY: Tahoma; mso-ansi-language: EN-CA">Unless we create programs to reverse the damage and conserve what we still have soon, we will be faced with an international water crisis<o:p></o:p></SPAN></LI></UL><img src ="/water/aggbug/365.aspx" width = "1" height = "1" />Team Duct TapeWater Stats and Salt Water Conversion/water/archive/2004/06/22/364.aspxWed, 23 Jun 2004 01:02:00 GMT/water/archive/2004/06/22/364.aspx/water/comments/364.aspx/water/comments/commentRss/364.aspx/water/archive/2004/06/22/364.aspx#comment3/water/services/trackbacks/364.aspxWater Case Study<P><FONT face=Tahoma>Check this site out for some good info...</FONT></P> <P><A href="http://www.eco-web.com/cgi-local/sfc?a=/editorial/index.html&amp;b=/editorial/02090.html"><FONT face=Tahoma>http://www.eco-web.com/cgi-local/sfc?a=/editorial/index.html&amp;b=/editorial/02090.html</FONT></A></P> <P><FONT face=Tahoma>~ Erin</FONT></P><img src ="/water/aggbug/364.aspx" width = "1" height = "1" />Team Duct TapePoints to Research/water/archive/2004/06/22/362.aspxTue, 22 Jun 2004 12:33:00 GMT/water/archive/2004/06/22/362.aspx/water/comments/362.aspx/water/comments/commentRss/362.aspx/water/archive/2004/06/22/362.aspx#comment9/water/services/trackbacks/362.aspxWater Case Study<P>Here are some ideas for points to research:</P> <P>~ Development versus conservation</P> <P>~ Water technologies - manufacturing water</P> <P>~ The international market for fresh water</P> <P>~ Political and socioeconomical aspects of water resources </P> <P>~ Effects of big business on water supply</P> <P>~ What sort of water conservation policies are in place already?&nbsp; Where?&nbsp; How effective are they?</P> <P>~ Will a resource crisis lead to war?</P> <P>~ Mutual coercion - will this be a possible solution to the water crisis? (Examine Garrett Harden's theory taken from The Tragedy of the Commons)</P> <P>~ Water crisis in the Mideast</P> <P>Post more ideas as they come to you..</P> <P>~ Erin</P><img src ="/water/aggbug/362.aspx" width = "1" height = "1" />Team Duct TapeIs Requirements Management a technical activity or managerial aspects ??/indranil_research/archive/2004/05/04/239.aspxTue, 04 May 2004 03:57:00 GMT/indranil_research/archive/2004/05/04/239.aspx/indranil_research/comments/239.aspx/indranil_research/comments/commentRss/239.aspx/indranil_research/archive/2004/05/04/239.aspx#comment8/indranil_research/services/trackbacks/239.aspxSoftware & Engineering Management Research<P>&nbsp;</P> <P>An action research studies have concluded that the initial requirements for projects are too often incomplete, not validated by their end-users and that they were not really intelligible to the users. The Requirements Engineering Process and particularly the elicitation process was at the source of the problems and requirements checklists and a user scenario template are designed, tested and included in the formal methodology to mitigate it.&nbsp; However .....</P> <P>The real challenge of enforcing the Requirements Management policy now becomes a responsibility of project managers with the support of the high-level management for its institutionalisation.</P> <P>The initial investigations indicated that the main obstacle to requirements control was the initial system specification produced at the feasibility phase of development. The quality of the initial requirements in this specification was insufficient to allow for the management of small changes to requirements later on during the projects. </P> <P>Some major findings are that </P> <OL> <LI>Most projects are time-boxed and the requirements provided by the customer are often incomplete, unclear and leave questions unanswered; <LI>The required functionality is presented on a detailed event basis. Functional requirements pertaining to each business transaction or from the overall user&#8217;s point of view are missing; <LI>The underlying business processes are poorly described and, consequently, are frequently not well understood by development teams; <LI>The users do not validate the requirements produced, leaving major defects in the requirements that could have been found right at the beginning; <LI>The risks inherent to poor requirements are not fully assessed and addressed.</LI></OL> <P><BR>The root-causes for these problems are:</P> <UL> <LI>The internal methodology does not prescribe a specific requirements elicitation process* nor does it promote user interface prototyping to clarify unclear requirements; <LI>The requirements documents prepared by the customer are full of technical details (solution instead of problem-oriented description) but fail to adequately describe the changes done to business processes and the users&#8217; point of view; <LI>No quality criteria are provided to review and assess the quality of documents produced by either the customer or the supplier;</LI></UL> <P><BR>The consequences of these problems are:</P> <OL> <LI>At the design phase, the requirements are often reworked instead of refined; <LI>System and validation testing generates a high percentage of enhancement requests; <LI>Target budgets and schedules for complete customer satisfaction are not always met.</LI></OL> <P>Cases&nbsp;demonstrate that when there are Requirements Management problems, it is important to look at both sides of the problems, the technical and the managerial aspects. Doing root-cause analysis on the technical aspects is not difficult when there is a will to change the situation. The root-causes can be brought to light and process improvements identified. But the institutionalisation of the technical changes, when they mean changing the organisation culture of companies, cannot be taken for granted. Considerable effort will be needed in order to get the business to business relationship adapted to the new context and these changes can not be left to the project managers alone. They should get the support of the entire management team and the evolution of the process should be monitored regularly.</P> <P>&nbsp;</P><img src ="/indranil_research/aggbug/239.aspx" width = "1" height = "1" />Indranil NathIs Software Requirements Development as Corporate Asset ?/indranil_research/archive/2004/05/03/235.aspxSun, 02 May 2004 14:08:00 GMT/indranil_research/archive/2004/05/03/235.aspx/indranil_research/comments/235.aspx/indranil_research/comments/commentRss/235.aspx/indranil_research/archive/2004/05/03/235.aspx#comment14/indranil_research/services/trackbacks/235.aspxSoftware & Engineering Management Research<P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0mm 0mm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Trebuchet MS'; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt"></SPAN>&nbsp;</P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0mm 0mm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Trebuchet MS'; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">Much work has been done over the past 30 years on why and how a large proportion of systems fail to achieve their &#8220;<SPAN style="COLOR: black">Raison d'&#234;tre&#8221;. Sometimes </SPAN>they are abandoned before the project is finished, or the system is developed, but the customer fail to use it because it does not meet their requirements. The system may conform to its original SRS, and still be a failure if it does not do what the customer needs it to do. <?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0mm 0mm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Trebuchet MS'; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0mm 0mm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Trebuchet MS'; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">The most common cause of not getting the requirements right is the existence of a cultural gap between developers and customer. These differences result in poor or inhibited communication between the stakeholders in the requirements gathering process, leading to an incomplete or poorly defined statement of user requirements. Systems subsequently developed using such an SRS is unlikely to meet the user's needs and will in all likelihood be abandoned or need to be substantially reworked. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0mm 0mm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Trebuchet MS'; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0mm 0mm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Trebuchet MS'; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">The need for IT developers and users to collaborate has long been recognized by both the practitioner and academic worlds. A wide range of what might be called integrative processes has been developed to promote a collaborative approach to requirements analysis. These integrative processes include the ETHICS model for participative systems development, Joint Application Development and the use of particular people as integrators, such as the 'hybrid manager'. Where used, integrative processes are successful in improving the level of collaboration and effective communication between suppliers and customers. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0mm 0mm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Trebuchet MS'; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0mm 0mm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Trebuchet MS'; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">But despite their effectiveness in solving a widely recognized, highly expensive problem, in reality integrative processes are not generally used. In practice, they are seen as expensive, time-consuming and a threat to established ways of developing software. Tight project budgets and schedules put most integrative processes into the 'nice to have in an ideal world' category. <o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0mm 0mm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Trebuchet MS'; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0mm 0mm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Trebuchet MS'; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">It is now important to&nbsp;explore the role of requirements development in various life cycle methodologies and show <SPAN style="COLOR: red">how</SPAN> Requirements development can be a methodology tightly tied with the software development life-cycle particularly followed in the organization.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0mm 0mm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Trebuchet MS'; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P> <P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0mm 0mm 0pt"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Trebuchet MS'; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt">A proven integrative process that is customized for the specific life-cycle can substantially improve the chances of achieving successful project outcomes. A technical writer, who is already a member of the software development team, should take responsibility for the writing of the SRS. This is likely to be welcomed by the software engineers who would otherwise have to do it themselves. Technical writer's are usually able to understand both the technical point of view of the supplier, and the non-technical view of the customer/user, and as such can bridge the cultural divide. This suits them to act as a facilitator of communication between supplier and customer. If an appropriate template is used to develop the SRS, it will be possible for a complete, correct, verifiable etc SRS to be developed, and this most dangerous of pitfalls for any development project to be avoided.<o:p></o:p></SPAN></P><img src ="/indranil_research/aggbug/235.aspx" width = "1" height = "1" />Indranil Nath